Impact Global Location: Algeria

REF impact found 19 Case Studies

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Conflict management and post-conflict reconstruction in Casamance, Senegal

Summary of the impact

Martin Evans' research concerns conflict and its aftermath in the Casamance region of southern Senegal — the scene of West Africa's longest-running insurgency. His work has influenced policy, humanitarian and development activity in the region and beyond, and has informed Western governments, international agencies and non-governmental organisations in their interventions to support peacebuilding and `post-conflict' reconstruction. In addition, Evans has provided expert testimony in relation to asylum claims made in Western countries by Casamançais fleeing persecution. Building on his previous work, Evans has conducted the underpinning research for this activity while at Chester as a lecturer (February 2009-July 2011) and senior lecturer (August 2011-present).

His work has a lasting impact because of the situation's intractability and the need to address ongoing violence and human displacement. The conflict also retains the capacity to destabilise neighbouring countries.

Submitting Institution

University of Chester

Unit of Assessment

Geography, Environmental Studies and Archaeology

Summary Impact Type

Societal

Research Subject Area(s)

Studies In Human Society: Political Science
History and Archaeology: Historical Studies

Eliminating blinding trachoma through single dose treatment

Summary of the impact

Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness. Research by Professors David Mabey and Robin Bailey, LSHTM, has shown that a single oral dose of azithromycin is an effective, feasible mass treatment and could eliminate trachoma from affected communities. As a result, the manufacturer Pfizer agreed to donate azithromycin to trachoma control programmes for as long as necessary and WHO established an Alliance for the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma by 2020. Since 2008, 205m azithromycin doses have been donated, and WHO elimination targets have been achieved in nine countries.

Submitting Institution

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Unit of Assessment

Clinical Medicine

Summary Impact Type

Technological

Research Subject Area(s)

Medical and Health Sciences: Public Health and Health Services

Fighting prejudice and challenging clich├ęs and assumptions about North African immigrants in France

Summary of the impact

The study describes how the Unit's research underpinned a national exhibition that made an active contribution to the debate about immigration and integration — issues that dominate social, media and political discourses in France. The exhibition helped to confront the clichés, assumptions and tensions characterising the national debate on the place of North African immigrants in French society. The Unit's Dr Rabah Aissaoui was closely involved in defining the structure and content of a national exhibition entitled Generations: A Century of Maghrebi Cultural History in France, staged in Lyon, Paris and Caen between 2009 and 2011. The exhibition was the first of its kind to be staged in the country and brought the richness and variety of the cultural contribution made by North African immigrants to national attention. It was cited as a prime example of good practice in the fight against racism and prejudice in the Annual Report Fight against Racism, Antisemitism and Xenophobia presented to the French Prime Minister by the National Consultative Commission of Human Rights in 2010.

Submitting Institution

University of Leicester

Unit of Assessment

Modern Languages and Linguistics

Summary Impact Type

Societal

Research Subject Area(s)

Language, Communication and Culture: Cultural Studies
History and Archaeology: Historical Studies

Dowdeswell Industry

Summary of the impact

Research based on unique marine-geophysical, bathymetric and geological data from the previously little-known polar shelf seas, collected and analysed by Dowdeswell and colleagues, has had significant impacts on the work of British and international charting agencies and on the activities of multi-national hydrocarbons companies. In terms of hazards in polar seas, these high-resolution water-depth data from offshore of Greenland and Antarctica have proved invaluable for use by the UK Hydrographic Office and international sea-floor mapping agencies in formal navigational charts that have wide international reach. Industry has also used Dowdeswell's satellite-derived measurements of iceberg dimensions and drift tracks, together with evidence on iceberg-keel ploughing of the sea floor, to assess hazards of operating ships and sea-floor structures in Arctic waters. Dowdeswell and colleagues' interpretation of seismic data has generated understanding of Quaternary sedimentary geometry and architecture on glacier-influenced shelves. This has been used in collaborative projects with hydrocarbons companies in applications to identify sorted sandy sediments (significant as oil and gas traps) in hydrocarbon-bearing ancient glacial rocks, for example in North Africa.

Submitting Institution

University of Cambridge

Unit of Assessment

Geography, Environmental Studies and Archaeology

Summary Impact Type

Environmental

Research Subject Area(s)

Earth Sciences: Geology, Oceanography, Physical Geography and Environmental Geoscience

Improved Processes for the Development of Dependable Systems

Summary of the impact

Research at Newcastle University on formal methods for the design of computing systems has had a major impact on the delivery of new high-dependability products by industry. The methods (VDM and Event-B), to which we have made significant contributions, have been embodied in tools (VDMTools, Overture, Rodin) and applied in industry. The reach of the work extends to industries in Europe (e.g. in the rail sector by Siemens, 2011) and Japan (e.g. in firmware design by Sony, 2008). Significance is seen in reported improvements in defect detection rates of up to a factor of 5 over previous processes and the cost-effectiveness of design processes. The "Mobile FeliCa" chip developed using VDMTools is now incorporated into over 200 million mobile phones worldwide. Our approach to disseminating research has engendered lively international and online end-user communities further developing and using the tools today.

Submitting Institution

Newcastle University

Unit of Assessment

Computer Science and Informatics

Summary Impact Type

Technological

Research Subject Area(s)

Information and Computing Sciences: Computation Theory and Mathematics, Computer Software, Information Systems

Innovative acoustic material enables economic growth while reducing waste and noise pollution

Summary of the impact

University of Bradford research has enabled a material manufacturing company, Armacell, to reuse up to 95% of its production waste to produce new, high-value acoustic products with up to 50% better acoustic performance than any competition products of similar size. We protected the developed IP through several international patents and set up a spin-off company, Acoutechs Ltd, to explore this technology commercially. These materials are now used to reduce noise levels below the recommended limits and to improve the general acoustic quality of spaces at home and work for the benefit of public health. The products generate an annual turnover of more than €4 million for Armacell and prevent more than 500 tonnes of plastic waste from going into landfill annually.

Submitting Institution

University of Bradford

Unit of Assessment

Civil and Construction Engineering

Summary Impact Type

Technological

Research Subject Area(s)

Physical Sciences: Other Physical Sciences
Engineering: Biomedical Engineering, Interdisciplinary Engineering

Meeting the diagnostic needs in resource-limited settings

Summary of the impact

Communicable diseases are a major health burden in the developing world. Early detection and accurate identification of infectious agents is key to their management. However, the complex procedures and logistics of current diagnostic tests often make them unsuitable for use in developing countries. Two technology platforms have been developed that have led to a new generation of simple and inexpensive rapid tests that can be applied in resource-limited settings. A spinout company was set up to allow translation of these platforms into new products. Three tests (Chlamydia, Hepatitis B and HIV) were launched since 2008, with test kits marketed, allowing patients to receive treatment for infections which would have previously gone unnoticed and untreated. The spinout company has raised >$30 million, of which >$20million is since 2008.

Submitting Institution

University of Cambridge

Unit of Assessment

Clinical Medicine

Summary Impact Type

Technological

Research Subject Area(s)

Biological Sciences: Genetics
Technology: Medical Biotechnology
Medical and Health Sciences: Medical Microbiology

Methods to determine sand dune migration benefiting engineering and hydrocarbon companies

Summary of the impact

Research conducted within Birkbeck's Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences led to the development of remote sensing and geophysical/geochronological methods to determine the movements of sand dunes. These techniques are now used by engineering and petroleum companies to plan pipeline routes and infrastructure in deserts, where migrating sand dunes are a problem because they can bury or damage infrastructure. For example, ARUP Consulting have already used the new methods to inform recommended alignments of pipelines in two multi-million pound engineering projects, and have changed their business practice to include the techniques in their tender documents for infrastructure projects in desert regions.

Submitting Institutions

University College London,Birkbeck College

Unit of Assessment

Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences

Summary Impact Type

Environmental

Research Subject Area(s)

Earth Sciences: Geology, Physical Geography and Environmental Geoscience
Engineering: Geomatic Engineering

Refugees and Exclusion: Informing the Global Judiciary

Summary of the impact

Professor Geoff Gilbert's research on exclusion in international refugee law has influenced policies of international organisations and courts around the world. His research on extradition prompted the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to invite Gilbert to write the Global Consultation on exclusion, adopted in 2001 at the 50th Anniversary meeting for the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. This Consultation directly influenced UNHCR's 2003 Guidelines on Exclusion that have been cited worldwide in hundreds of cases during the impact period. Canadian and German appellate courts have also favourably cited Gilbert's work directly.

Submitting Institution

University of Essex

Unit of Assessment

Law

Summary Impact Type

Political

Research Subject Area(s)

Law and Legal Studies: Law
Philosophy and Religious Studies: History and Philosophy of Specific Fields

Harrop- Agricultural Heritage Systems

Summary of the impact

Professor Stuart Harrop's advice has informed and underpinned the UN Food and Agricultural Organisation (UNFAO) policy approach to `Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems' (GIAHS).

GIAHS are defined as `remarkable land use systems and landscapes which are rich in globally significant biological diversity evolving from the co-adaption of community with its environment and its needs and aspirations for sustainable development' see http://www.fao.org/giahs/giahs/en/. The UNFAO GIAHS project promotes and protects traditional agricultural systems to support food security/resilience strategies and preserve cultural and agro- and bio-diversity. Currently, there are GIAHS sites in Algeria, Brazil, Chile, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Japan, Madagascar, Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Tanzania, Tunisia, USA, Vanuatu (further details at http://www.fao.org/giahs/giahs-sites/en/).

UNFAO requested Harrop to provide advice on the international law and policy that might support GIAHS. That advice continues to underpin the approach to the UNFAO's most recent work and meetings concerning GIAHS. In particular, Harrop's work has informed the UNFAO's decision not to engage in drafting an additional international legal framework. Instead, the organisation is using the existing legal arrangements to protect these land-use systems and landscapes.

Submitting Institution

University of Kent

Unit of Assessment

Anthropology and Development Studies

Summary Impact Type

Environmental

Research Subject Area(s)

Studies In Human Society: Policy and Administration
Law and Legal Studies: Law

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