Research at Lancaster led to a novel approach to detect the source of
cases of campylobacteriosis
(a bacterial foodborne disease). The application of this method to data
from New Zealand pin-
pointed that New-Zealand's high rate of cases was linked to the eating of
These results were a key part of the evidence used by New Zealand's Food
Safety Authority to
introduce a new code of practice for the poultry industry. The impact of
this code of practice has
been a halving of the number of reported cases of campylobacteriosis in
New Zealand (from
around 16,000 cases in 2006 to less than 7,000 in 2008). With notification
rates estimated as 1 in
10, this corresponds to around 90,000 fewer actual cases per year. The
saving for the New
Zealand economy during the REF census period has been independently
estimated as between
£100M and £150M.
Evidence about the need for and provision of health visiting services
generated through research undertaken at King's College London (KCL) has
underpinned major changes in national policies for health visiting. Our
findings about health visitors' practice, availability and distribution of
services and effectiveness in terms of parenting/child outcomes, revealed
both shortfalls in provision and opportunities for improvement and led to
the development of a new caseload weighting tool and funding model for
service planning. The accumulated evidence from this research helped
convince the UK Government in 2010 to commit to 4,200 more health visitors
by 2015 — a workforce expansion of nearly 50% — in a time of austerity and
restraint elsewhere in the public sector.
The UK infant formula market increased in value from 2005-2013 by 65% to
£463m. The Unit's research, funded by the Food Standards Agency and the
Department of Health, addressed the concerns of policy makers and breast
feeding lobby groups that baby food manufacturers might be circumventing
recently introduced restrictions on advertising infant formula (breast
milk substitute) products in such a way as to undermine support for, and
uptake of, breastfeeding. The research findings underpinned the
recommendations on regulatory change made to government by an independent
review panel established by the Minister of State for Public Health. Since
the panel reported, manufacturers have addressed the issue by removing
publicly accessible links to infant formula product information.
Research conducted by the University of Liverpool (UoL) has convincingly
shown that there are strong links between the exposure of children to food
advertising, brand recognition and being overweight or obese. This work
consistently informs the policies of regulators and health agencies,
nationally and internationally. In this specific example, work by Halford
and Boyland to characterize the effects of food advertising on children's
diet, food preferences, intake and body weight has had a direct effect on
UK and overseas policy development. Notably this includes informing WHO
guidelines to national governments on introducing effective regulatory
frameworks and for monitoring their effectiveness.
Impact: Policy / animal welfare. Policy implementation changed and
bird welfare improved.
Significance: Our research informed welfare guidelines impacting
upon housing of around 200 million laying birds in the EU. Our work has
been adopted in EC regulations, and they are pushing all EU member states
to ensure all their producers install aerial perches over slatted
Beneficiaries: Laying birds, welfare organisations, egg producers,
and the general public.
Attribution: Prof. Sparks, Dr. Sandilands (SRUC). Involved
collaboration with Prof. Green at Heriot Watt University acting as a
Reach: Guidelines have been adopted in EU legislation.
Professor Paul Grout has had a significant impact on national policy on
the delivery of public services by the private sector in the last five
years. His research undertaken at the University of Bristol on private
provision by regulated utility companies and public private partnerships,
using both economic theory and empirical studies, paved the way for his
central involvement in, and directly informed, key regulatory decisions.
These decisions impact materially on almost every individual and
organisation in the UK. His research also directly led to his appointment
in 2012 to the Board of Ofgem (the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority),
the UK energy regulator.
Impact type: Public Policy
Significance: The research provided evidence for formulation of
government policies to ameliorate poor air quality, to which fine
particulate matter (PM2.5), O3 and NO2
are the most important contributors; PM2.5 alone reduces
average life expectancy in the UK by 6 months and costs £9bn-£20bn a year.
The research has been incorporated into UK national guidance and
policy-evidence documents for Defra, the Health Protection Agency, and the
Beneficiaries are the public and the environment.
Research; date; attribution: EaStCHEM research (1995-2011) (a)
established reliable techniques to measure NO2 for a national
protocol, and (b) quantified the impact of pollutant emissions on PM2.5
and O3 concentrations, and on hospital admissions and deaths.
Heal (EaStCHEM) led the research and wrote, collaboratively in some cases,
the reports and the work cited.
Reach: UK wide.
This case study refers to research on British drinking cultures and
alcohol policy carried out by
James Nicholls, Reader in Media and Social Policy, Department of Film and
(2004-September 2012). In this role, Nicholl's research and his public
engagement contributed to
shaping the UoA's research reference frame of cultural behaviour,
cultural practice and public
policy (see Ref5). Following the publication of his book, The
Politics of Alcohol (2009) Nicholls
developed as a specialist advisor involved in the analysis and planning of
alcohol policy at national
and regional levels. His work and influence has been cited in key policy
documents (including the
House of Commons Health Select Committee Report, Alcohol: First
Report of Session 2009-10
HC151-1) in 2010. This work has subsequently helped to shape regional and
policy in both England and Scotland. This case study provides evidence of
this impact in regard to
the following areas:
Increased understanding of how a member state can influence the EU
created two kinds of impacts: changing thinking, understanding and
awareness (e.g. HM Treasury); and changing strategy and policy (e.g. EU
Committee of Regions). Impacts were generated between 2008 and 2012 on the
Polish Government, the Swedish International Development Agency, the US
Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation, civil servants in Ukraine,
Russia and the UK, the European think tank community, the Labour Party and
the EU's Committee of the Regions. Impact was generated through
consultancies to public bodies and by providing advice to governments,
international organisations and the private sector.
Professor Fraser Davidson's research underpinned impact on public policy
and law-making in Scotland
by enriching and informing the development by the Scottish Government and
the Scottish Parliament of
a new legal framework for commercial dispute resolution under the
Arbitration (Scotland) Act 2010 ("the
2010 Act"). This Act has the objective of entirely reforming the Scots law
of arbitration and establishing
Scotland as a major forum for international commercial arbitration, with
resultant economic benefits.