Protecting Training Schemes in the Cultural and Creative Sector
Submitting InstitutionUniversity of Warwick
Unit of AssessmentEducation
Summary Impact TypeSocietal
Research Subject Area(s)
Medical and Health Sciences: Public Health and Health Services
Education: Curriculum and Pedagogy, Specialist Studies In Education
Summary of the impact
Research conducted by Warwick's Centre for Educational Development,
Appraisal and Research (CEDAR) provided vital supporting evidence for the
continuation of funding for two Government sponsored educational schemes:
the Dance and Drama Award scheme run by the Department for Education (DfE)
and subsequently the Learning and Skills Council and the Royal Shakespeare
Company's (RSC) Learning and Performance Network. Performing arts colleges
and their students, as well as the wider creative economy, have benefitted
from CEDAR's recommendation to the Government to continue the DaDA Scheme,
resulting in a £14m per annum investment in the performing arts sector,
whilst the Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA) commissioned
CEDAR to evaluate the impact of the RSC's Learning and Performance Network
(LPN) on teachers and learners, resulting in a successful bid by the RSC
for funding to continue the LPN. The research also fed into the
development of a collaborative practitioner training programme with the
RSC, Teaching Shakespeare, launched in 2012.
a) The Review of the Dance and Drama Awards Scheme (DaDA);
commissioned by the DFE/LSC. DaDA: 07-12 2009: Jonothan Neelands, Geoff
Lindsay, Robert Lindley, Joseph Winston and Sheila Galloway, all based
at Warwick for the duration of the research.
The DaDA Scheme was a Government intervention in the independent training
market for the performing arts. A series of research studies was
commissioned by the DfE over the period 2000- 09 [1-4]. Their purpose was
to provide Ministers with a high level strategic review of the scheme's
benefits and to determine the likely impact on the performing arts if the
scheme were closed. The earlier studies included examination of the
characteristics of the students in receipt of Awards, including their
academic achievement and disabilities, e.g. [9, 10]. From 2007-2009
research included site visits to all 31 schools in the DaDA Scheme, and
interviews with stakeholders and industry representatives. The researchers
undertook rigorous analysis of destination data, employability and
employers' perspectives on the DaDA Scheme. This included identifying the
training backgrounds of performers in 22 West End and touring musicals,
five year employment records from the RSC and National Theatre, a week of
the Radio Times and over 4,000 films to identify the visibility of DaDA
graduates in the labour market.
The research demonstrated that the DaDA Scheme was integral to the
ecology of the training and employment markets in the professional
performing arts and that closing the scheme would have a disastrous effect
on the industry and therefore on the economy [11,12]. This was achieved by
identifying the percentages of DaDA graduates active in the industry in a
given period and quantifying the Gross Value Added (GVA) of the performing
arts as whole and performing artists individually to the London and
National economy. We also developed economic, cultural and social policy
arguments for DaDA through consultations with industry stakeholders and
cross referencing to other policy objectives and imperatives. The Review
also found that DaDA was more successful than other training schemes in
terms of subsequent employment of students: 41% of leads and 66% of
ensembles working in the West End during the Review were trained on DaDA
courses as opposed to 10% and 1% from Conservatoire for Dance and Drama
b) Impact of the Evaluation of the Royal Shakespeare Company's (RSC)
Learning and Performance Network (LPN); commissioned by the Teacher
Development Agency (TDA). RSC/LPN: 01-04 2009 Jonothan Neelands; Sheila
Galloway and Geoff Lindsay all based at Warwick for the duration of the
This study was one component of an on-going research collaboration
between Creative Partnerships, the previous government's flagship cultural
education project, and the RSC, between 2007 and 2009. Its aim was to
provide a real-time observational study and evaluation of the success of
the LPN in terms of its impact upon teachers and educational methods, and
its ability to engage students with Shakespeare. The LPN scheme was
designed to improve the quality of teaching and learning through the use
of drama techniques and by creating a partnership between third sectors,
HEI and schools [5-8].
Performance indicators for success of the LPN included embedding working
practices to enhance the teaching of Shakespeare, the spirit of ensemble,
and attitudes to Shakespeare. These provided shape for the baseline
questionnaires and surveys, and established a focus for the two research
MA students at Warwick, sponsored by the RSC. We surveyed 300 teachers
against baseline measures to establish how successfully the indicators had
become embedded in practice. In addition, the research was designed to
make best use of other sources of data undertaken by Creative Partnerships
including external evaluations of a PG Award in Teaching Shakespeare,
offered by Warwick to LPN teachers, the work of the MA students, and 35
action research based case studies produced by teachers for the PG Award.
We also conducted ethnographic study of the workings of the cluster and
lead school model in the LPN and a survey of lead teachers (27) and
cluster teachers (300) including; demographics; self-assessment against
negotiated performance indicators; relevant prior experiences and reasons
for joining the LPN; and strengths and weaknesses of the partnership with
RSC and University of Warwick.
The study included a student survey, an evaluation of teachers' practice,
and a reflection upon the processes of the Network and its evolution. Our
research demonstrated a positive change in attitudes to Shakespeare,
including a significant reduction in those who find Shakespeare difficult
to understand and changes in teaching practices to make the experience of
learning Shakespeare more active, by bringing Shakespeare into drama
lessons and acting out scenes from Shakespeare plays [13-15].
References to the research
1. Dance and drama awards evaluation. Lindsay, G. & Neelands,
J. DfEE, £276,055. 2000-03.
2. Dance and drama awards evaluation. Neelands, J., Lindsay, G.,
Galloway, S., Freakley, V., Band, S., Lindley, R., & Davies, R. DfES,
3. Supplement - Mapping Entrances and Exits into Training and
Employment in the Performing Arts. Neelands, J. LSC, £85,700. 2006.
4. Review of the Dance and Drama Award Scheme. Neelands, J.,
Galloway, S., Lindsay, G., Lindley, R., & Winston, J. LSC, £63,550.
5. Evaluation of the RSC's Learning Network. Galloway, S. Royal
Shakespeare Company, £29,952. 2007.
6. The impact of the Royal Shakespeare Company's learning and
performance network. Neelands, J., Galloway, S., & Lindsay, G.
TDA, £50,000. 2009.
7. Attitude to Shakespeare and Comparison to Initial LPN Evaluation.
Strand, S. Royal Shakespeare Company. £9,500, 2010.
8. Why start Shakespeare young? Winston, J. RSC, £8,000, 2010.
9. Neelands, J., Lindsay, G., Freakley, V., Galloway, S., Lindley, R.,
& Davies, R. (2006). Dance and Drama Award Scheme Evaluation
project Phase II. Final Report. Coventry: University of Warwick,
10. Band, S., Lindsay, G., Neelands, J., & Freakley, V. (2011).
Disabled students in the performing arts - are we setting them up to
succeed? International Journal of Inclusive Education. 15((9),
11. Neelands, J., Lindley, R., Lindsay, G., Winston, J. and Galloway, S.
with I. Kellgren and M. Morris (2009) Dance and Drama Award Strategic
Review, 2009: Final Report. Coventry: University of Warwick, CEDAR
and IER. [Commercial - In confidence to LSC]
12. Neelands, J., Freakley, V., and Lindsay, G. (2006), Things can only
get better: A study of social-market interventions in the shaping of the
field of cultural production, International Journal of Cultural
Policy, 12 (1), 93-109.
13. Neelands, J. and O'Hanlon, J. (2011). There is Some Soul of Good: An
Action-Centred Approach to Teaching Shakespeare in Schools, Shakespeare
Survey. 1st ed. Vol. 64. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. 240-250. Shakespeare Survey Online. Web. 23 September 2013.
14. Neelands, J., Galloway, S. & Lindsay, G. (2009) Stand up for
Shakespeare: The Royal Shakespeare Company Learning & Performance
Network 2006-2009 [Report to the Training and Development Agency for
Schools] Coventry: University of Warwick, CEDAR.
15. Neelands, J. (2010) The wheel is come full circle; learning to play
with Shakespeare in Monk, N. Rutter, C. Neelands, J. Heron H. Open-space
Learning: A Study in Transdisciplinary Pedagogy London: Bloomsbury.
[peer reviewed monograph]
Details of the impact
The research has had wide ranging impact across the creative and cultural
education sector, bringing benefits to students, teachers, policy-makers,
education providers, and the wider economy. These impacts were achieved by
providing robust evidence for decision-makers, enabling arts organisations
to win further funding, and through the provision of improved teacher
Impact on Government Policy
The most significant impact that emerged from this research was the use
of our research to inform and influence policy on the creative and
cultural education sector. At the outset, closure was a viable option for
the scheme due to changes in and support for the sector since the scheme's
inception in 1999: the DfE needed advice on the potential impact of this
course of action. Our recommendations were communicated directly to
Ministers at a seminar in January 2010. The pivotal point in the review
recommendation, `that the DaDA Awards continue to be allocated at similar
levels and numbers until alternative arrangements are in place in order to
minimise what key employers see as a serious threat to the performing arts
sector', prompted the government to continue funding the DaDA Scheme until
the next comprehensive spending review. Subsequently, the new
administration has also accepted the findings and agreed to continue the
Recommendations from the Review were particularly influential on
Government, and the future direction of the DaDA Scheme. Most notably, the
Review recommended that the scheme should target students who could not
otherwise afford to undertake the training, which led to an emphasis on
equality of opportunity and access in the Scheme, including implementing
the recommendation that access courses should be provided for students
with disabilities. The key recommendations of CEDAR's Review were later
incorporated into the Henley Review of Cultural Education, commissioned by
DfE and DCMS [i] and endorsed in the Secretary of State for Education's
Response [ii].This Review investigated support for cultural and creative
education, and as a result the Government introduced many new initiatives
to improve dance and drama teaching, e.g. the creation of Drama UK, a
quality assurance and standards authority for vocational drama courses at
leading conservatoires. As a result of his expertise and research into the
DaDA Scheme, Neelands was appointed as an independent Director of Drama
UK. Moreover, Drama UK uses the methodology developed from the Report to
underpin its ranking of drama schools [iii].
Impact on the Economy and Performing Arts Sector
Through its cogent argument for the continuation of the DaDA scheme, the
Review secured an investment of £14m per annum, benefiting performing arts
students, the national economy, and the providers of creative and cultural
education. If our research had failed to convince the government to
continue funding DaDA there would have been substantial negative
consequences for the sector. The Scheme provides a significant proportion
of the talent required by the performing arts industry which has a GVA of
£4.45b nationally and £1.6b to the London economy. Leading industry
figures including Arlene Phillips, Sir Cameron Mackintosh, Bill Kenwright
and André Ptaszynski, Chief Executive of Lord Lloyd-Weber's Really Useful
Group interviewed for the Review emphasised the importance of DaDA to
their own and other businesses. In the employers' view, there would be a
potentially catastrophic effect on the performing arts industry if the
DaDA Scheme was closed before the establishment of any alternative means
of ensuring a continuous supply of high quality performers to the
industry. The research also highlighted the financial dependence of many
training providers on the DaDA funding and was able to demonstrate that
withdrawal of funding would lead to fees at a level that only the very
rich could afford, the reduction of teaching hours, larger teaching
groups, less qualified professional trainers and in some cases possible
closure. This would then impact on the intensity and quality of training
across the sector that provides much of the talent the industry depends on
Our research has had a significant impact on the provision of creative
and cultural education by providing the RSC with the necessary evidence to
lobby for further financial support. The successful £320k bid (2012) by
the RSC to the Paul Hamlyn Foundation for a new three year funding
programme for the LPN was based upon our research [vii, viii]. This
funding has established a new network linking 120 schools and 10 local
theatres and encourages active and theatre based approaches to the
teaching of Shakespeare. The impact of the LPN on teachers' approaches
indicates a highly positive experience for teachers, as expressed by a
Lead Teacher; "It was the best quality training I have ever had in 25
years of teaching. The expertise of the RSC supported by Warwick has been
second to none." [viii,ix] In order to continue the impact of the
research, Neelands is now a member of the RSC Education Advisory Board and
advises on the RSC's on-going research and evaluation programme.
Impact on teacher training provision
The significance of the Warwick PGCE and the LPN was supported by a
review by Thompson et al. [x]. A major impact on training provision was
the launch of the Teaching Shakespeare programme in 2012; a
ground-breaking partnership between the RSC and the University of Warwick
that evolved out of the commission's research findings. By offering online
and residential courses, our findings were fed into the pedagogical
approach of the new courses and resources. The programme offers an MA and
a PG Award in Teaching Shakespeare to teachers and actors. Since
its launch in September 2012, 55 students have enrolled on Teaching
Shakespeare courses and 150 site licenses have been sold to schools.
60 teachers and 18 theatre practitioners will be funded to complete the PG
Award, leading to direct and indirect benefits to 72,000 pupils. These
courses are having an international impact on teaching practice with
students from Europe, Asia, Australia and North America enrolled on the
online qualification and summer intensive courses in Stratford Upon Avon.
In 2013 Neelands ran a five day intensive course in Singapore attended by
representatives from the Ministry of Education and Teaching
Shakespeare was a finalist at the Bett Awards for technology in
education, considered to be the most prestigious within the education
sector, in recognition of the quality of the programme.
Impact on pupils
The research has impacted upon pupils directly, through involvement in
the LPN and indirectly by benefitting from the innovative pedagogical
techniques taught to teachers on the Teaching Shakespeare
programme. The commission's student survey, completed by over 1000 pupils
in 2007 and then again in 2009, demonstrated a significant change in
attitudes towards Shakespeare as a result of the LPN. There was an
increase in pupils believing Shakespeare to be fun and they were less
likely to say that Shakespeare was difficult to understand . Resulting
from the commission, pedagogical frameworks for teachers were developed
which had demonstrated a highly positive effect upon pupil confidence and
active learning. The RSC Shakespeare Toolkit has now been placed
by the DfE in every secondary school in England and acknowledges the
influence of Neelands and Winston [xi].
Sources to corroborate the impact
Impact of DaDA Review
i) DCMS (2012) Cultural Education in England — an independent review
by Darren Henley
[This report adopts the recommendations made by the DaDA review]
ii) DCMS (2012) Cultural Education in England - the government's
response to the independent review by Darren Henley
[This document demonstrates how recommendations from DaDA review and
Henley Review led to creation of Drama UK]
iii) Drama UK [can corroborate Neelands' work as Director of Drama UK].
iv) Director of Council for Dance Education and Training.
v) General Secretary of Equity.
vi) Council for Dance Education and Training (2010) `The Dance and Drama
Awards: Ten Years of Success'
http://issuu.com/cdsuk/docs/dada_brochure[This is a brochure produced by
CDET to promote the DaDAs, which draws on the research].
Impact of LPN Review
vii) Royal Shakespeare Company http://www.rsc.org.uk/education/lpn/
viii)Headteacher, Queensbridge School.
ix) Lead teacher statement, (2009, pg. 26)
x) Thomson, P., Hall, C., Thomas, D., Jones, K. and Franks, A. (2010) A
study of the Learning Performance Network, an education programme of the
Royal Shakespeare Company (Newcastle: Creativity, Culture and
Education) [This evaluation demonstrates the value of the Warwick PG Cert
and the LPN as it evolved following our research].
xi) RSC (2010) Shakespeare Toolkit Methuen Drama; London.