Revealing Disability’s Hidden Past: Enriching public discourses and empowering disabled people
Submitting InstitutionSwansea University
Unit of AssessmentHistory
Summary Impact TypeSocietal
Research Subject Area(s)
Language, Communication and Culture: Cultural Studies, Literary Studies
History and Archaeology: Historical Studies
Summary of the impact
Prize-winning research by Dr David Turner at Swansea University has enriched
public understanding of the history of disability. He has empowered
disabled people by showing that they have a history and demonstrated
the contemporary relevance of that history in showing that developments
considered recent, such as the formation of disabled identities and public
fears about the authenticity of disabled welfare claimants, are nothing
new. Impact is achieved via the creation of a major cultural product,
a BBC Radio 4 series `Disability: A New History' which reached a wide
audience, and through targeted engagement with media, policymakers and
campaigners on disability benefit reform.
Since 2006, Turner has undertaken research that examines changing social
and cultural attitudes towards disability from the early modern to the
modern period, and the impact of shifting cultural meanings of impairment
on the experiences of disabled persons themselves. Turner's work is part
of the burgeoning international field of Disability History in which
Swansea University has emerged as a significant UK centre, thanks to major
externally funded projects led by Turner, Professor Anne Borsay, Dr Irina
Metzler and Professor Patricia Skinner. Turner received an AHRC Fellowship
Award, `Imagining Disability in the long Eighteenth-Century: Physical
Impairment in England 1660-1830' which ran from December 2010 to September
2011. The findings of the research were published in a monograph, Disability
in Eighteenth-Century England: Imagining Physical Impairment
(Routledge, 2012), the first book-length study of physical disability in
Georgian England. The book won the Disability History Association
Outstanding Publication Award in 2012 for the best book published
worldwide in English 2010-12 on any aspect of Disability History.
b) Nature of research insights:
Several key findings of Turner's research undertaken as part of the AHRC
Fellowship and published in the book relate to the impact claimed in this
i. Turner's research is focussed on changing definitions of `disability'
itself, showing how concepts of `disability' and `able-bodiedness' changed
from narrow, socially specific categories to the more universal labels we
understand today. This finding underpinned the BBC series, the first
episode of which examined historical definitions of disability to show the
historical contingency of the term.
ii. His work has challenged popular stereotypes that people in the past
lacked understanding of disability or empathy, showing how
eighteenth-century attitudes were a complex mix of mockery, sympathy and
genuine admiration. This was a theme examined throughout the BBC series
and was the starting point for its re-interpretation of disability in
history, challenging the assumption that the lot of disabled people in the
past was invariably miserable.
iii. Turner's research has gone further than previous work in the field
in expanding the range of source materials for disability history, drawing
on sermons, jokes, medical texts, periodicals, prints, popular and elite
correspondence and criminal court records. A key feature of the BBC series
was its demonstration that disabled people were everywhere in the past by
including readings from an innovative range of source materials furnished
by Turner's work.
iv. In the process, he has focussed attention on the voices of disabled
people themselves, exploring the formation of disabled identities. The BBC
series foregrounded personal testimonies including those of subjects
studied in Turner's book, such as the MP William Hay and artist Matthew
v. The research demonstrated that concerns about the `fraudulent'
presentation of disabilities to claim support were a long-standing media
obsession, related to cultural perceptions of `deserving' and
`undeserving' types of disability rather than a significant culture of
deception. In order to give these findings a clearer policy perspective,
Turner summarised them in a policy paper for History and Policy,
an online open-access forum designed to connect historians with media and
policymakers by making previously peer-reviewed research available in an
accessible format focussed on contemporary political issues.
c) Key researcher: Dr David Turner; appointed to Swansea
University as Senior Lecturer, 2005; promoted to Reader, 2012.
References to the research
D. Turner, Disability in Eighteenth-Century England: Imagining
Physical Impairment (London and New York: Routledge, 2012)
[Monograph 90,000 words. Reviewed at proposal stage by 5 reviewers].
b) Research grants:
D. Turner (PI), `Imagining Disability in the Long Eighteenth Century:
Physical Impairment in England 1660-1830', AHRC Fellowship award, awarded
August 2010, £64,751 fEC; project dates 13 December 2010 - 12 September
2011. Peer reviewed by academic reviewers at grant application stage.
Details of the impact
a) The most significant means by which Turner's research enhanced
public understanding was through the creation and response to a
ten-part series `Disability: A New History' for BBC Radio 4, a
collaboration between Turner, production company Loftus Media and the
BBC's Disability Affairs Correspondent who presented it (C1).
Turner collaborated with the producer to develop the idea for a series
intended to get disability out of a broadcasting ghetto and into the
popular mainstream by showing the richness of its pre-twentieth century
history. Whereas the BBC TV series The Disabled Century (1999) had
looked at changing attitudes to disability in Britain since 1914, no
series on radio or TV had ever examined disability before this period in a
sustained way. Turner was actively involved in the lengthy commissioning
process, helping to write the prospectus for the series and accompanying
the producer to a meeting with the Commissioning Editor, General Factual
Programmes at BBC Radio 4, and was subsequently appointed academic adviser
on the project. The series was collaborative, involving interviews with
Turner and 13 other historians who contributed additional insights from
their own research. However, during the development and recording of the
series (September 2012-April 2013) Turner made a unique contribution in
designing the content of each episode with the producer, using his
research to provide sources for readings in 8 of the 10 programmes,
providing expert interviews used in 4 programmes, using his knowledge and
standing in the field to find other contributors, and guiding the
historical interpretation and accuracy of the script, with the production
team using his book as their primary historical reference.
Turner's research thus had a significant impact in creating a new
cultural product, influencing the production in terms of content and
interpretation. Turner's research was instrumental in providing a variety
of new sources read by actors that would surprise and challenge the
audience, including advertisements for medical products, jokes,
testimonies of freak show performers, and in leading the team to sources
where disabled people spoke for themselves. The producer writes that
Turner's research `was invaluable in shaping the series, and both the
presenter and I drew on his book both as background and to provide
materials, e.g., readings for the series', and that `this Radio 4
series would never have happened if I had not met and interviewed
David Turner' whose `authority and standing as a historian
— particularly his recent book Disability in Eighteenth-Century England
were crucial to having the series commissioned by Radio 4'.
She writes that Turner's contribution has `made me think in a new
way about how we define disability, not just in the past but now'.
The BBC Disability Affairs Correspondent commented that the series had
given him `a number of new perspectives ... not least the doubt much of
the research sheds on the idea that we are making perpetual progress in
our attitudes to disability' (C2).
The series was broadcast weekdays at 1.45 pm between 27th May
and 7th June 2013 in a popular slot which gave its impact on
enriching public discourses of disability a wide reach. (C3) The
series attracted much discussion in the press and social media. On Twitter
several disability campaigners and organisations such as Remploy debated
questions raised by the series, such as whether disabled performers in the
eighteenth century were exploited or entrepreneurs — a theme addressed by
Turner in an interview contribution to episode 3 and in an article for the
BBC Ouch! Disability blog (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/blogs-ouch-22637045).
Some in the disability community tweeted about how the series had empowered
them by allowing them to imagine their lives through the ages. The Daily
Telegraph (29 May 2013) marvelled at the `surprising amount
of documentary evidence' revealed by the series, while the Observer
(2 June 2013) noted how the series created a new kind of history
because `the disabled have never really featured in our stories of
ourselves' (4). The series identified Turner as the expert to
contact to find out more about disability history. He received letters
from members of the public including from a woman who had heard his
account of the limbless artist Matthew Buchinger in episode 3 who sought
his advice on donating a previously unknown engraving by the artist in her
possession to a public repository, and from a successful popular novelist
asking for advice on writing about disability in her forthcoming novel.
b) Turner's work has also contributed to public discourse about
disability and welfare reform via an article, `"Fraudulent"
Disability in Historical Perspective' published by History and Policy
on 14th February 2012 to coincide with the debate of the
Welfare Reform Bill in the House of Lords (http://www.historyandpolicy.org/papers/policy-paper-130.html).
Whilst public debate on welfare had drawn on historical precedents before,
there had been little discussion of the period before the nineteenth
century in general — or which addressed disability in particular — prior
to Turner's intervention.
The piece had immediate impact, leading to an article published on the
BBC News Wales website which forced a Department of Work and Pensions
spokesman to defend the integrity of government policy (C5). The impact of
Turner's work is evident in terms of its reach, with the BBC News
article shared 78 times on Twitter by political organisations, disability
activists and anti-cuts campaigners. Feedback from the public included `interesting
and thought-provoking article about our attitudes towards disability'
and several respondents indicated how the research had enriched the
vocabulary of political debate highlighting how the early modern
term `clapperdogeon' showed that the stigmatising of welfare claimants was
not new (C6). Turner's research findings were also reported in the Western
Mail on 20 February 2012 with a response from the policy officer of
Disability Rights UK on how government policy was increasing public
hostility to disabled people (C7). Turner did a 30 minute live interview
on BBC Radio Wales Jamie and Louise Show (28 February 2012) and was
interviewed by BBC Kent (21 February 2012) in a feature on a family about
to lose state benefits for their disabled son. The impetus given to
disability rights campaigns is evident in Turner's article being
recommended by various voluntary sector organisations, including links on
the Facebook pages of Disability Wales, ACT NOW, Autism Campaigners
together, and the Benefits Helpline website. Turner published a follow-up
opinion piece for History and Policy (http://www.historyandpolicy.org/opinion/opinion_96.html)
to coincide with the London 2012 Paralympics, which was described by the
CEO of Scope, as a `very interesting piece' (C8).
For disabled people the research was significant in showing that they
have allies who were able to articulate their concerns using historical
evidence. One person facing reassessment of their benefits wrote of
Turner that `we need the help of people like yourself and your
colleagues' to highlight the struggles affecting disabled people
Sources to corroborate the impact
(1) `Disability: A New History'. Loftus Media production for BBC Radio 4.
10 episodes (plus 2 omnibus editions) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b021mdwt
(accessed 7 August 2013).
(2) Email testimony provided by the series producer, Loftus Media, and
the Disability Affairs Correspondent, BBC.
(3) BBC quarterly audience, download and AI information provided via
Loftus Media and BBC and submitted to REF, but redacted from this
published version due to confidentiality.
(4) Loftus Media Storify of reaction to the series: http://storify.com/LoftusMedia/disability-a-new-history
(accessed 7 August 2013).
(5) Benefit Cheats: David Turner on `history of distrust of disability',
(accessed 7 August 2013).
(accessed 7 August 2013).
(7) `Obsession with "Benefit Scroungers" is not new', Western Mail,
Monday 20th February 2012, p.13.
(8) Twitter: CEO Scope tweet to David Turner (@DrDavidMT) and History
and Policy, (@HistoryPolicy),13 September 2012.
(9) Email from member of the public to one of History and Policy's
founding partners, 18 February 2012, commenting on Turner's article.