The work described here has impacted on European policy and standards
concerning energy efficiency in Building Services.
The impact arises from two Welsh School of Architecture led and European
Commission funded projects, HARMONAC (focussed on inspection of
air-conditioning systems) and iSERV (focussed on automatic system
monitoring and feedback). These pan-European projects demonstrate achieved
energy savings of up to 33% of total building electricity use in
individual buildings, and potential savings up to €60Bn. These projects
demonstrably impacted the recast European Energy Performance of Buildings
Directive (EPBD) and the revision of EU Standards (European Committee for
Responding to the crisis in confidence amongst clinicians involved in
child protection, Cardiff University developed the world's first research
programme to provide the scientific basis for more reliable clinical
assessments of child abuse and neglect. The programme, which involves 21
systematic reviews (updated annually) and related primary studies, has
directly informed five national clinical guidelines, the National Child
Protection training program and the first NICE guidance on child
maltreatment. Through the Core-Info website, the evidence base created by
the Cardiff team is accessed each year by 100,000 users. Key messages from
their research have been published in a series of Core-Info leaflets which
have reached more than 250,000 allied professionals nationally. The
Cardiff research informs standardised national clinical practice, training
and legal decisions, ultimately improving the recognition and protection
of children from abuse or neglect.
Before 2008-9 the worldwide Anglican Communion had no global legal
framework for its 44 autonomous churches with their 80 million members.
Historically, the Communion has been maintained by mutual "bonds of
affection" held by members one for another on the basis of shared beliefs.
This is changing. The Principles of Canon Law Common to the Churches of
the Anglican Communion were launched at the Lambeth Conference in 2008,
while the Anglican Communion Covenant (2009) is currently before each
church for ratification. Research by Professor Norman Doe at Cardiff Law
School first identified the need for these initiatives and informed his
drafting and advocacy of both documents, each providing a framework of
`house rules' for the Communion.
Cardiff University research led to second-generation chemiluminescent
technology. The invention allowed for internal amplification control in
nucleic-acid based clinical diagnostic assays for infectious disease and
produced results with greater accuracy and fulfilled previously unmet
regulatory standards. Adopted by the market leader in nucleic acid
diagnostics (a sub-licensee of Cardiff University) the Cardiff technology
is used globally in more than 60 million in vitro diagnostic tests
annually. Sales of the tests approach $500 million per year and the
sub-licensee was subsequently sold for $3.8 billion.
Producers of dietary supplements have historically lacked scientific
rigour when advertising the health benefits of their products. Researchers
at Cardiff University have addressed this problem in relation to omega-3
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). They identified a family of enzymes
(aggrecanases) as key players in the onset of arthritis, knowledge
subsequently used to identify a specific subset of omega-3-PUFAs with
beneficial activity in a canine arthritis model. This led to novel patents
and product development in both the pet food and human dietary supplement
markets. These include the patented use of omega-3 PUFAs in Hills'®
Prescription Diet® range and the development and marketing of Seven Seas'
Research led by the Cardiff School of Psychology first revealed a
`governance trap' hindering decisive long-term action by the UK government
on climate change. Nick Pidgeon co-authored a Parliamentary Research
Report that identified a solution to this problem, which was the creation
of an independent expert Committee to advise the government of the day on
long-term climate change targets and to evaluate progress. This
recommendation was enshrined in the 2008 Climate Change Act, which
formalised the scope and composition of the UK Climate Change Committee.
Since its inception the committee has shaped the future energy strategy of
the UK and devolved administrations. The committee is also providing a
blueprint for approaches in other countries.
Research at Cardiff University is underpinning the abandonment of the
100-year-old surgical practice of removing all axillary lymph nodes in
cases of breast cancer. Such surgery frequently caused arm lymphoedema,
loss of arm mobility and lymphatic system damage. Cardiff led the seminal
ALMANAC trial which showed that full node clearance was unnecessary if a
biopsy of the first draining `sentinel' node was cancer-free. Cardiff then
spearheaded the impact on practice through a training and awareness
programme for surgeons, primarily in the UK, but also in China, India,
Brazil and Turkey. By 2010 these efforts had established the Sentinel
Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) procedure as standard in the UK, while the study
was also cited in USA guidelines. The main beneficiaries of the impact are
the 50-75% of breast cancer patients who now enjoy lower levels of pain,
shoulder disability and arm lymphoedema. Healthcare providers also benefit
financially from a reduced need for extensive surgery.
In the late 1990s the new Welsh Assembly Government publicly acknowledged
a significant evidence gap in relation to rural policy. A Cardiff
University team of rural researchers led by Terry Marsden and Paul
Milbourne has since played a significant role in filling this gap. A major
programme of longitudinal and place-based research has revealed the need
for a more integrated approach to rural policy development. Key findings
from this research have been used by the Welsh Government to develop more
sustainable and integrated forms of rural policy, particularly in relation
to anti-poverty and agri-food strategy. The research evidence has also
influenced policy debates in the UK on agri-food, as well as negotiations
between the Welsh Government and European Commission in relation to
European objectives for rural development.
New approaches to analysing and modelling water systems, developed at
Cardiff, have driven national policy changes to improve the proportion of
fully functioning water ecosystems in the UK. UK Government, Welsh
Government and a range of NGOs have adopted these new approaches, which
replace traditional descriptive methods with experimental, analytical and
modeling techniques for understanding water ecosystems.
These approaches have been used to develop the water-related component of
the National Ecosystem Assessment. This document has directly impacted on
UK river management policy, forming the basis of two Defra White papers,
`Natural Choice' and `Water for Life', underpinning Welsh Government's
Natural Environment Framework and informing the work of a range of NGOs.
A new family of antiviral agents, bicyclic nucleoside analogues (BCNAs),
discovered in Cardiff University has led to a highly potent anti-VZV
(shingles) molecule, FV-100. On a worldwide basis more than two million
patients are affected by shingles annually. FV-100 has successfully
completed Phase II clinical trials, showing it is safe, potent and
effective and with clinical advantages over the current standard of care.
FV-100 has received more than $30 million in R&D investment,
generating patents and creating highly skilled jobs in the UK and the USA,
with the parent company currently valued at $397 million. It will enter
registration trials in late 2013.