Research at LU carried out from 2003 to 2011 has made a significant
impact on the practical realisation of Open Access (OA) to scholarly
publications at an international level. Research into publisher's
Copyright Transfer Agreements underpinned the development of the
SHERPA/RoMEO service, widely used by repository managers across Europe
[impact 4.1]; a cost-benefit model of scholarly publishing in relation to
the main routes to OA influenced the publishing industry, and research
strategy amongst UK funding agencies [impact 4.2]; further research
influenced Research Councils UK (RCUK) policy in relation to mandates
[impact 4.3], and the work of the European Commission in the development
of its digital agenda [impact 4.4].
A reduction in planning uncertainties and financial risks of
photovoltaics has been achieved by developing internationally accepted
standards. Non-standardised characterisation and unreliable energy
prediction caused a performance gap between expectations and realistic
yields. Loughborough University (Prof. Gottschalg, Dr. Betts) conducted a
series of research projects since 1999 which reduced this performance gap.
The team consciously transferred developed methods to international
standards for energy prediction and device characterisation.
Standardisation has, with significant contributions from this team,
resulted in the reporting period in a reduction of at least 2% calibration
uncertainty, which has a value at today's prices of $1.500,000,000 per
year (J. Wohlgemuth [5.1]).
This research has already saved the NHS in excess of £2.5 million over 3
years through bulk purchasing. It was used by the National Ambulance Fleet
Strategy Group to develop a national specification of emergency ambulances
to reduce costs and improve patient care with 6 of 11 Ambulance Trusts in
England purchasing from the national contract. The design and testing of a
second tier of vehicles and equipment has supported new systems of work
through a Community Urgent Response Environment (for on-the-spot
treatment) and has been used in a tender specification by NHS Supply Chain
to purchase replacement portable equipment.
Loughborough University's (LU) research in the application of artificial
intelligence techniques to
enhance process safety since 1993 has resulted in novel computer tools
that generated the
following economic impacts through the creation of a University spinout
Technologies Ltd, in 2002:
1) Raised over £1.3m shares capital from investors.
2) Developed research prototypes into state-of-the-art commercial tools
for improving process
3) Signed a global sales agreement with Intergraph Corporation in 2005.
4) Established a portfolio of major companies around the world as
5) Employs two executive directors, three software developers and three
The impact of the research at Loughborough University from 1999 to date
has transformed informational processes in Leicestershire Police and has
been adopted by other Police forces across the UK and internationally.
Within Leicestershire it has led directly to [5.1]:
Fluvial geomorphology research at Loughborough University has impacted on
the approaches and procedures of practitioners responsible for
characterising and managing river-bed sediments. Dr Graham's research has
underpinned the development to commercialisation of an automated method
for measuring river-bed sediment size. The associated cost-saving benefits
have had an international reach into field practice, demonstrated by
non-academic software sales across Europe, North America and Australasia.
Professor Rice's research has underpinned strategies focused on managing
river sedimentation problems, as well as the design of new tools and
adoption of new approaches, especially in the USA, aimed at better
managing fish populations.
Research by Loughborough University academics has influenced the
development of elite footballs
used in numerous global tournaments including FIFA World Cups, UEFA
Championships and Olympic Games. Research findings have led to increased
that have allowed adidas to produce balls with improved commercial appeal
resulting in a tenfold
increase in sales whilst maintaining product performance in line with the
highest certifiable level of
Reducing vehicle noise and vibration is a key quality objective in the
automotive industry. Historically, the approach has been costly palliation
late in the manufacturing process; now a new approach applied earlier in
the vehicle development cycle has been devised by Loughborough University
and Ford and implemented at Ford that has led to savings of $7 per vehicle
with respect to clutch in-cycle vibration (whoop). Ford has reported
savings of $10M over 5 years, whilst reductions in transmission rattle
have led to 5% fuel efficiency gains [5.1]. Ford has made an
investment of £240M in its engine and transmission work at Bridgend, which
includes aspects of work reported here and has created 600 new jobs [5.2].
A global consortium of libraries has adopted the innovative TOTEM
registry data model to address urgent issues surrounding the preservation
of digital artefacts. The core challenge for digital archiving is to match
potentially obsolete software that originally created artefacts —
`complex' objects with sound and visuals as well as data information —
with later computing platforms that can thus preserve them. The TOTEM
project has effected major change in the technical specifications of
preservation: its technical strategy for `emulation' enhances previous
processes through which old files are `migrated'. End-users confirm that
TOTEM has had significant cultural and technical impact on the
preservation practices of national libraries including the
Netherlands, New Zealand and Australia, and US National Archives and
Records Administration. Benefit to these organisations is technical,
societal and economic, contributing to viable, long-term solutions in
digital preservation policy.
Free and open access (OA) to publicly funded research offers significant
benefits, but it also requires complex new systems to underpin it.
University of Southampton research has resulted in software products
enabling large numbers of research institutions to implement their own
digital research repositories. Studies on the viability and impact of OA
have steered institutions towards a more cost-effective and impactful
model for disseminating research, and UK public policy has been directly
influenced by the Southampton team's advocacy work. The research also led
to economic benefits through two spin-outs and the development of digital
archiving techniques, which have been widely used by broadcast and film