##
Similar case studies
**
**

### REF impact found *
11* Case Studies

#### Currently displayed text from case study:
Summary of the impact
Underpinning research
References to the research
Details of the impact
Sources

### Modelling oceanic internal waves to enhance marine and naval predictions and practices

**Summary of the impact**

Large-amplitude horizontally propagating internal solitary waves commonly occur in the interior of the ocean. This case study presents evidence to demonstrate the impact of research conducted by Professor Grimshaw at Loughborough University on the development and utilisation of Korteweg- de Vries (KdV) models of these waves, which has formed the paradigm for the theoretical modelling and practical prediction of these waves.

These waves are highly significant for sediment transport, continental shelf biology and interior ocean mixing, while their associated currents cause strong forces on marine platforms, underwater pipelines and submersibles, and the strong distortion of the density field has a severe impact on acoustic signalling.

The theory developed at Loughborough University has had substantial impact on the strategies developed by marine and naval engineers and scientists in dealing with these issues.

**Submitting Institution**

Loughborough University**Unit of Assessment**

Mathematical Sciences**Summary Impact Type**

Environmental**Research Subject Area(s)**

**Earth Sciences:**Oceanography

**Engineering:**Maritime Engineering, Interdisciplinary Engineering

### Improved parametric resonance of a vibrating screen

**Summary of the impact**

A novel application of parametric resonance (PR) is described, which has improved the effectiveness of a vibrating screen used for size-sorting of crushed rock. These improvements have had an economic impact on the Ukrainian company that makes the screens: the mathematics developed in Aberystwyth permits a stable, high amplitude PR-regime to be found, reducing the damage to the screen mesh and increasing its longevity. This new technology is allowing the company to reduce costs and equipment downtime and is enabling them to gain a market advantage by being able to sort wetter materials than previously.

**Submitting Institution**

Aberystwyth University**Unit of Assessment**

Mathematical Sciences**Summary Impact Type**

Technological**Research Subject Area(s)**

**Mathematical Sciences:**Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Physics

### Decomposition, defect correction, and related numerical methods

**Summary of the impact**

Spatial decomposition methods have been extended to apply to spatial, scale, and temporal domains as a result of work at the Numerical and Applied Mathematics Research Unit (NAMU) at the University of Greenwich. This work has led to a numerical framework for tackling many nonlinear problems which have been key bottlenecks in software design and scientific computing. The work has benefitted the welding industry in the UK because these concepts are now embedded, with parallel computing, in the industry's modern welding design process software.

**Submitting Institution**

University of Greenwich**Unit of Assessment**

Mathematical Sciences**Summary Impact Type**

Technological**Research Subject Area(s)**

**Mathematical Sciences:**Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Numerical and Computational Mathematics

### Improving the Met Office Weather and Climate Prediction Model

**Summary of the impact**

Research by Professor John Thuburn and his group at the University of Exeter has made several key contributions to the formulation and development of ENDGame, the new dynamical core of the Met Office weather and climate prediction model. ENDGame has been shown to deliver improved accuracy and better computational performance at high processor counts compared to the current operational dynamical core, directly impacting the technological tools available to the Met Office. These improvements will benefit users when ENDGame becomes operational in early 2014: the economic value to the UK of the weather forecasts produced by the Met Office has been estimated to be in excess of £600M pa, while climate change projections inform policy decisions on mitigation and adaptation with huge economic implications.

**Submitting Institution**

University of Exeter**Unit of Assessment**

Mathematical Sciences**Summary Impact Type**

Environmental**Research Subject Area(s)**

**Mathematical Sciences:**Statistics

**Earth Sciences:**Oceanography

**Engineering:**Maritime Engineering

### Safety on the Sea

**Summary of the impact**

The safe operation of ships is a high priority task in order to protect the ship, the personnel, the cargo and the wider environment. Research undertaken by Professor Alexander Korobkin in the School of Mathematics at UEA has led to a methodology for the rational and reliable assessment of the structural integrity and thus safety of ships and their cargos in severe sea conditions. Central to this impact is a set of mathematical models, the conditions of their use, and the links between them, which were designed to improve the quality of shipping and enhance the safety of ships. The models, together with the methodology of their use, are utilised by the ship certification industry bringing benefits through recognised quality assurance systems and certification.

**Submitting Institution**

University of East Anglia**Unit of Assessment**

Mathematical Sciences**Summary Impact Type**

Technological**Research Subject Area(s)**

**Mathematical Sciences:**Applied Mathematics, Numerical and Computational Mathematics, Statistics

### 2: Modelling extreme waves and their loads on offshore structures

**Summary of the impact**

The impact arises from the study of extreme ocean waves and their interaction with marine structures. It is relevant to the offshore, shipping, coastal and marine renewables industries and has been both economic and regulatory, involving:

(a) The establishment of revised guidelines for the design of new structures / vessels.

(b) Enhancing best practice, both from an economic and a safety perspective.

(c) Reducing the uncertainty in critical design issues, thereby improving overall reliability.

(d) Enabling "end-of-life" extensions for existing structures.

(e) Facilitating the effective decommissioning of redundant structures.

(f) Contributing to the development of new industrial R&D equipment, thereby assisting specialist UK manufacturers to secure international orders.

**Submitting Institution**

Imperial College London**Unit of Assessment**

Civil and Construction Engineering**Summary Impact Type**

Economic**Research Subject Area(s)**

**Mathematical Sciences:**Statistics

**Earth Sciences:**Oceanography

**Engineering:**Maritime Engineering

### Improved modelling of ion dynamics in the Thermo Scientific OrbitrapTM mass analyser using Hamiltonian perturbation theory

**Summary of the impact**

This case study describes the impact of research at Loughborough
University from 2009-2012 into
the mathematical modelling of the dynamics of ions using perturbation
theory of Hamiltonian
systems of equations. Outcomes from this research have been incorporated
into software used for
the performance modelling of a series of high-precision Fourier Transform
Mass Spectrometers
manufactured by Thermo Fisher Scientific GbmH and branded as Orbitrap^{TM
}with an average price
$0.5 million. The derived methodology reduces the time of numerical
modelling of the behaviour of
charged particles in an Orbitrap^{TM }instrument by a
factor of 100 to 1000. This reduction is of
significant benefit to the Life Science Mass Spectrometry, Scientific
Instrumentation Division of
Thermo Fisher Scientific and indirectly the users of the instrument.

**Submitting Institution**

Loughborough University**Unit of Assessment**

Mathematical Sciences**Summary Impact Type**

Technological**Research Subject Area(s)**

**Physical Sciences:**Atomic, Molecular, Nuclear, Particle and Plasma Physics

**Chemical Sciences:**Physical Chemistry (incl. Structural), Theoretical and Computational Chemistry

### Improving data analysis via better statistical infrastructure

**Summary of the impact**

A generalized additive model (GAM) explores the extent to which a single output variable of a complex system in a noisy environment can be described by a sum of smooth functions of several input variables.

Bath research has substantially improved the estimation and formulation of GAMs and hence

- driven the wide uptake, outside academia, of generalized additive models,
- increased the scope of applicability of these models.

This improved statistical infrastructure has resulted in improved data
analysis by practitioners in fields such as natural resource management,
energy load prediction, environmental impact assessment, climate policy,
epidemiology, finance and economics. In REF impact terms, such changes in
practice by practitioners leads ultimately to direct economic and societal
benefits, health benefits and policy changes. Below, these impacts are
illustrated via two specific examples: (1) use of the methods by the
energy company EDF for electricity load forecasting and (2) their use in
environmental management. The statistical methods are implemented in *R*
via the software package mgcv, largely written at Bath. As a `recommended'
*R* package mgcv has also contributed to the global growth of *R,*
which currently has an estimated 1.2M business users worldwide [A].

**Submitting Institution**

University of Bath**Unit of Assessment**

Mathematical Sciences**Summary Impact Type**

Economic**Research Subject Area(s)**

**Mathematical Sciences:**Applied Mathematics, Statistics

**Economics:**Econometrics

### Optimal geometry of soap bubbles

**Summary of the impact**

Research on the optimal arrangements of soap bubbles and soap films has been used as a vehicle for public engagement in mathematics. Presentations and demonstrations have been given in both Welsh and English at various events. These have had an impact on the awareness and interest of school children in geometry and mathematics.

**Submitting Institution**

Aberystwyth University**Unit of Assessment**

Mathematical Sciences**Summary Impact Type**

Societal**Research Subject Area(s)**

**Mathematical Sciences:**Pure Mathematics, Numerical and Computational Mathematics

**Information and Computing Sciences:**Computation Theory and Mathematics

### The Development of Commercial Optimization Software

**Summary of the impact**

Research led by Professor Roger Fletcher has resulted in the development
of a suite of algorithms
that are now widely used throughout industry. An algorithm of fundamental
importance
constructed by Fletcher and co-workers is the *filter method* — a
radically different approach to
solving large and complex nonlinear optimization problems typical of those
faced by industry. This
algorithm was developed with the principal aim of providing a
computationally reliable and effective
method for solving such problems. The filter method is now utilised by a
variety of high-profile
industry end-users including IBM, Schlumberger, Lucent, EXXON, Boeing, The
Ford Motor
Company, QuantiSci and Thomson CSF. The use of the filter method has had a
significant
economic and developmental impact in these companies through enhanced
business performance
and cost savings.

**Submitting Institution**

University of Dundee**Unit of Assessment**

Mathematical Sciences**Summary Impact Type**

Technological**Research Subject Area(s)**

**Mathematical Sciences:**Applied Mathematics, Numerical and Computational Mathematics

**Information and Computing Sciences:**Computation Theory and Mathematics