Sustainable Public Private Partnerships
Submitting InstitutionUniversity of Central Lancashire
Unit of AssessmentArchitecture, Built Environment and Planning
Summary Impact TypeTechnological
Research Subject Area(s)
Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services: Business and Management
Studies In Human Society: Policy and Administration
Summary of the impact
Governments and major construction clients face significant challenges
procuring and delivering large infrastructure projects. Robust and
defendable infrastructure procurement is therefore increasingly important
for addressing these challenges to deliver value (at minimum risk).
Public- Private Partnership (PPP) research within the Grenfell-Baines
School of Architecture, Construction and Environment (the unit of
assessment, UoA) is led by Akintoye and Liyanage. Their
work has made a direct positive impact on some of these issues, the extent
of which has benefited several sectors — from construction and
transportation, through to the water industry (e.g. Naismiths, iBE
Partnerships; WDA Project Ltd; Navigant Consulting); and its reach
and significance is evidenced through international engagement at
the highest levels (e.g. Queensland Government Australia; Constructing
Excellence; CIB; University of Hong Kong China).
Earlier EPSRC and RICS funded research led by Akintoye produced a
standardised private finance initiative (PFI) project framework, extant in
the seminal works: Public Private Partnerships: Managing Risks and
Opportunities (2003) and Policy, Management and Finance for
Public-Private Partnerships (Akintoye and Beck, 2008).
Fertile progression of this formative research, project- managed by Akintoye
at the UoA, was further crystallised through a `COST EU' Networking Grant
Project TU1001: `Public Private Partnerships in Transport: Trends and
Theory'1. The project started in 2010, and brought
together international research partners from 17 European and four
non-European countries (Australia, Hong Kong, Albania and USA). It
developed a PPP knowledge base for the transport sector by uniquely
employing theories drawn from other fields, including social exchange
theory, real option theory, incomplete contract theory and knowledge
transfer on organisational theory. Additionally, Akintoye and Liyanage
as lead investigators, completed a related project that identified
critical success factors and tested knowledge base criteria, for improved
This world-leading research has uniquely substantiated how integrated
construction procurement (including, joint ventures, partnering,
project/strategic alliances and prime contracting), along with its
associated framework agreements and supply chain management opportunities,
can yield innovative construction delivery and tangible process
improvement. This has been demonstrated not only within mainstream
construction conduits; but also, among diverse areas such as water
governance (Akintoye, and Renukappa, 2013) and transport
(see also impact evidence later). The research also identified critical
success factors such as partners' commitment to adequate resources,
equitable relationships and recognition of non-financial benefits; while
principal failure mechanisms were found to include lack of
trust/consolation, inexperience and poor business fit. In advancing these
findings for the benefit of end users, the UoA designed approaches for
capturing and prioritising collaborative drivers in such areas as:
relationships, trust, risk allocation, legal and regulatory requirements,
and market maturity criteria (Adetola et al., 2011).
Construction Innovation and Process Improvement (Akintoye et
al., 2012), further complemented and consolidated this research,
with contributions from esteemed international academics and practitioners
from Australia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Malaysia, The Netherlands, Turkey, UK,
and the USA. This peer-reviewed seminal text brought PPP to forefront of
public and practitioner awareness. In recognition of the UoA's seminal
work, the CIB Programme Committee established a new Task Group TG72
Public Private Partnership in 2008, which is led by Akintoye
and Kumaraswamy. TG72 continues to internationally inform and positively
impact PPP through this leading forum to facilitate effective
knowledge-exchange for core PPP issues.
The UoA's PPP research also informs society through numerous conduits,
including industry workshops and dedicated conference forums such as
Constructing Excellence; The International Conference on PPP Body of
Knowledge, Preston, UK (2013) in collaboration with European Co-
operation in Science and Technology; CIB TG72; and the University
of Hong Kong, China. Outreach is also complemented through
specialist workshops (e.g. Akintoye et al., 2011), and
cognate outputs (Akintoye et al, 2012; Brown et al.,
2013) as key components of the impact process.
1 Accessed at: http://www.cost.eu/domains_actions/tud/Actions/TU1001
References to the research
2. Akintoye, A., and Beck, M., (Eds.). (2008). Policy,
Management and Finance for Public- Private Partnerships. West
Sussex: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. ISBN: 978-1-4051-7791-7.
3. Akintoye, A., Liyanage, C., and Renukappa, S.,
(2011). Proceedings of the Public-Private Partnerships: CIB TG72 ARCOM
Doctoral Research Workshop. 12 October, 2011, University of Central
Lancashire, Preston, UK. Accessed at: http://clok.uclan.ac.uk/2986/
4. Akintoye, A., Goulding J.S., and Zawdie, G. (2012). Construction
Innovation and Process Improvement: Theory and Practice.
Wiley-Blackwell, UK, ISBN: 9781405156486; DOI: 10.1002/9781118280294
5. Akintoye, A. and Renukappa, S. (2013). The UK water
industry: infrastructure, governance and procurement. In Gunawansa, A. and
Bhullar, L. (Eds.). Water Governance: An Evaluation of Alternative
Architectures. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK. pp. 81-118. ISBN
6. Brown, M., Akintoye, A., and Goulding, J.S., (2013), Public
Private Partnerships: Towards New Innovative Collaborations, Centre
for Sustainable Development, Grenfell-Baines School of Architecture,
Construction and Environment, University of Central Lancashire, Preston,
UK ISBN: 978-1-901922-93-6
Details of the impact
This research has positively impacted the way in which public, private
and third sectors specifically approach PPP procurement at the following
commercial and organisational - through improving
processes; increasing effectiveness of practice; and the governance
of private business entities.
- through helping shape public sector PPP procedures, thereby
improving infrastructure delivery to the benefit of society.
- through positive influence on professional practice to inform PPP
guidelines and shape future service provision.
The above three levels of impact are verified in the following five
evidence descriptors. In order to aid clarity, each descriptor is
cross-referenced with `sources to corroborate each impact' (Section 5)
along with their associated `impact levels'. This correlation is presented
in parentheses form at the end of each descriptor.
1) UoA research continually and directly influences international and
organisational industrial practice. Examples of this include:
a) National Public Private Partnership Guidelines (Queensland
Government, 2009). The PPP research report by Akintoye on `VfM
and Risk Allocation Models in Construction PPP Projects' informed
the development of the risk allocation element, of the High Level Value
Drivers of an Abridged Partnership Model within the Queensland Guidelines.
(Impact levels 1 and 2; Corroborative source 1).
b) The Asian Development Bank (ADB) report `Public Private
Partnership Infrastructure Projects: Case Studies from the Republic of
Korea' (Asian Development Bank, 2011) relied extensively on the PPP
research products of Akintoye. The ADB report informed development
of institutional arrangements and performance for the Republic of Korea,
to underpin development of an institutional PPP framework and regulatory
PPP reforms. (Impact level 2; Corroborative source 2).
2) Internationally, CIB TG72 has positively impacted on understanding,
awareness and the practical application of PPP. For example, in 2009,
Kumaraswamy and Akintoye led the CIB TG72 Conference, "Revamping
PPPs: From `Revisiting and Rethinking' to `Revamping and Revitalising'
PPPs". Participants included government bodies, contractors and consulting
firms in stakeholder management engaging in: benchmarking for Private
Finance Initiative (PFI) risk assessment; the production of PFI risk
management case studies; and direct knowledge diffusion through industry
engagement. (Viz. Revamping PPPs, University of Hong Kong,
February 2009, >200 international industrial delegates; and Major
Infrastructure Procurement Addressing the Constraints, Queensland
University of Technology, December 2010, >70 delegates from the
construction, public and financial sectors). (Impact levels 1, 2
and 3; Corroborative sources 1 and 3).
3) The International Conference on PPP Body of Knowledge (March 2013)
co-hosted by the Centre for Sustainable Development (within the UoA),
built on earlier Akintoye research to actively engage prestigious,
international academics and industry leaders from across construction in
debates around contemporary PPP practices (>80 delegates from the
construction, public and financial sectors). Resulting outcomes were
formalised for professional practice adoption within an industry guidance
document by the Constructing Excellence Lancashire Best Practice Club (Impact
levels 1, 2 and 3; Corroborative source 4 and 7).
4) Ongoing engagement with industry continues to shape knowledge and
performance at the workface through formal workshops, seminars, keynote
addresses, technical guidance publications and policy influence. The
textbook `Public Private Partnership: Managing Risks and
Opportunities' (op. cit.) — the first definitive reference
source on this subject — has complemented this engagement and has directly
influenced approaches to construction risk allocation. (Impact
levels 1 and 2; Corroborative source 4).
5) Outcomes of the COST project have permeated industry and professional
practice at the highest levels, particularly through the Transport
Research Arena conference in April 2012 and the International
Conference on PPP Body of Knowledge in March 2013. Outcomes were also
evidenced in the TG72 Doctoral Research Workshop (Impact levels 1
and 3; Corroborative sources 5, 6 and 7). The UoA's
benchmarking protocol for transport sector PPPs actively employed
multidisciplinary partners and cross-sector collaboration to help shape
PPP selection, implementation and operation among EU transport projects.
Outcomes are also positioned within extant knowledge in a textbook. (Impact
levels 1, 2 and 3; Corroborative sources 6 and 8).
Sources to corroborate the impact
- Queensland Government, Australia (2009). National Public Private
Partnership Guidelines. Work used in the Development of an Abridged
Partnership Model. Department of Infrastructure and Planning. Accessed
- Asian Development Bank (2011). Public-Private Partnership
Infrastructure Projects: Case Studies from the Republic of Korea, Vol.
1 Institutional Arrangements and Performance. Accessed at: http://www2.adb.org/documents/books/ppp-kor-v1/ppp-kor-v1.pdf
- Centre for Infrastructure and Construction Industry Development,
(2009). CIB TG72 on PPP Revamping PPPs from `Revisiting and
Rethinking' to `Revamping and Revitalising' PPPs. Symposium
Proceedings. Accessed at: http://www.civil.hku.hk/cicid/3_events/78/78_PPPs_2009_proceedings.pdf
- Brown, M., Akintoye, A., and Goulding, J.S., (2013). Public
Private Partnerships: Towards New Innovative Collaborations.
Centre for Sustainable Development, Grenfell-Baines School of
Architecture, Construction and Environment, University of Central
Lancashire, Preston, UK ISBN: 978-1-901922-93-6
Akintoye, A., Liyanage, C., and Renukappa, S. (2011).
Public-Private Partnerships: CIB TG72 ARCOM Doctoral Research Workshop.
12 October, 2011, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
- Dealing with Public-Private Partnerships for Transport in Times of
Economic Uncertainty. 26th of September 2012, Colegio Nacional de
Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Madrid. Accessed at http://www.foroinfra.com/JORNADAS/Jornada%20Foro%20de%20Infraestructuras_2012_sept_26.pdf
- PPP Body of Knowledge International Conference (2013). 18th-
20th March, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
Accessed at: http://be2camp.com/page/pppconf2013
Akintoye et al., (2012). As per reference (4), section