Web project Gothic Ivories, led by Professor John Lowden
Submitting InstitutionCourtauld Institute of Art
Unit of AssessmentArt and Design: History, Practice and Theory
Summary Impact TypeCultural
Research Subject Area(s)
Information and Computing Sciences: Artificial Intelligence and Image Processing
History and Archaeology: Curatorial and Related Studies, Historical Studies
Summary of the impact
The Gothic Ivories Project is an online research resource which aims to
provide detailed information and high-quality images of all Gothic
ivories. This database has been constructed in a collaborative venture
with over 260 museums and collections in 19 countries to date. It is
accessible at www.gothicivories.courtauld.ac.uk.
Despite being work in progress, the site already attracts over 2,000 users
per month. It has transformed the possibilities and practicalities of
ivories research. The principal beneficiaries are scholars, students,
museum staff, the art market and the wider public.
The Project began by building a database of all ivories sculpted in
Western Europe in the Gothic period, c.1200-1530 (including neo-gothic [19th-century]
works). It supersedes Raymond Koechlin's monumental Les ivoires
gothiques français, published in three volumes (Paris 1924). Whereas
Koechlin's study had 1,328 entries and approximately 500 illustrations,
the Gothic Ivories Project by end of July 2013 had in its database more
than 4,300 objects, and more than 10,000 images. Every item is accompanied
by a detailed catalogue entry and unprecedented photographic coverage,
much of it consisting of newly executed high-resolution digital images.
Catalogue information: questions of authenticity
The proportion of Gothic ivories whose date and circumstances of
production or early provenance are securely documented is very low. As a
result, the issue of the authenticity of many Gothic ivories is uncertain.
This is a matter of great interest (and some concern) to all those who
work on or curate Gothic ivories. A further complicating factor is the
number of neo-gothic copies of what are assumed to be medieval models, in
some cases utilizing plaster casts of which some thousands of examples
were made between the late 18th and 20th centuries.
The Project is thus important for the history of collecting as well as for
the history of the physical material. It records all dates and origins
that have been proposed in the literature along with the opinion of the
curator at the museum in question.
An essential element of the Project is the commissioning and sourcing of
high-resolution photographs, which provide multiple views of the objects.
In addition, old photographs are reproduced when they supply information
subsequently lost: for example, because the object was stolen (or
destroyed) during the 20th century, or polychrome decoration
was added or removed.
Basic functionalities of the website
Rules governing metadata input have ensured a high level of consistency
throughout the database. The user can conduct simple or multi-criteria
searches. A simple search will find specific words from any field. An
advanced search can be made across many fields together: for example, you
can search for the left wing of a diptych, 11-12 cm tall, with a single
register of images under an architectural frame comprising four arches.
Given that many ivories survive as fragments, this type of advanced search
promises to be especially useful in bringing such fragments together.
Powerful research capability is provided by specialist software. Up to
four objects can be viewed side by side on a single screen, and closely
compared by zooming in on each one individually.
Timetable for completion
Research on the Project has been underway since October 2008. Funding is
secured to October 2014, after which it is planned to maintain and update
Key Researchers (all at The Courtauld Institute of Art)
Prof. John Lowden, faculty, Principal Investigator
Dr Catherine Yvard, Gothic Ivories Project Manager
Dr Sarah Guérin, Post-doctoral Researcher, 2011-13
References to the research
1. `Gothic Ivory Sculpture: Old Questions, New Directions'. International
conference co-organised by the Courtauld Institute of Art and the Victoria
and Albert Museum, 23rd-24th March 2012.
2. S. Guérin, `An ivory Virgin at the Metropolitan Museum, New York, in a
Gothic sculptor's oeuvre', in The Burlington Magazine, vol. 154
(June 2012), pp.394-402.
4. Two-year post-doctoral fellowship of Dr Sarah Guérin at The Courtauld,
funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
5. PhD Studentship 2012-15 (AHRC-funded Collaborative Doctoral Award
`Gothic Ivories: Evidence from the Collections of the British Museum')
jointly supervised at The Courtauld Institute / British Museum.
6. John Lowden and John Cherry, Medieval Ivories and Works of Art: The
Thomson Collection at the Art Gallery of Ontario (Toronto, 2008).
Competitive public funding was secured for items 4 and 5
Between 2008 and 2013 the Gothic Ivories Project was additionally funded
by the following grants:
• Phase one of the Gothic Ivories project (2008/09 - 2010/11): Thomson
Works of Art, at a rate of £80k per annum amounting to £240,000 over three
• Phase two of the Gothic Ivories project (2011/12 - 2013/14): Thomson
Works of Art and Ruddock Foundation for the Arts, London, at a rate of
£40k per annum each, with a further contribution of USD$10,000 from The
Audrey Love Foundation, New York (yielding £5,887.35 via AFCIA).
Details of the impact
The Gothic Ivories Project was devised following a widely publicised
display at the Courtauld Gallery (Ivories from the Thomson Collection)
and a resulting catalogue by John Lowden (2008). It was decided to
establish collaborative relationships with all institutions and
individuals known to possess Gothic ivories; to provide information and at
least one image per object, and, most important, to make all this material
available to a wide public as well as a scholarly audience via a website,
free to the user. This site, www.gothicivories.courtauld.ac.uk,
went online in December 2010 with 749 ivories and approximately 4,000
images. Since then there have been regular uploads from the database to
the website, so that currently there are more than 3,100 objects with
nearly 10,000 photographs online. Initially impacting primarily upon
institutions and curators, the Project is now attracting attention from
anyone seeking to research Gothic ivories. This pattern of impact will
change again once the main body of database material is fully accessible
online (October 2014).
Impacts 1 - 3: Research collaboration with institutions, their
curators and their collections
The earliest impact of the Project saw the creation of a new
international network linking key contributors: museums, galleries and
private collections. Of particular importance were curators from the
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Louvre and the Musée du Cluny
in Paris, and the V&A, British Museum and Wallace Collection in
London, together representing the largest holdings of Gothic ivories. In
turn, their support reassured smaller institutions as to the bona fides of
the Project. Further crucial collaborations were with the Réunion des
Musées Nationaux and the Médiathèque de l'Architecture et du
Patrimoine in France, both of which provided the Project with high
resolution images of ivories from numerous French public collections
without charge for their reproduction. This represented a crucial
The second impact saw participating museums gain a deeper knowledge of
their own objects. Previously unknown details of provenance, and citations
in the scholarly literature, were brought to light. The Project has
already revealed numerous previously unpublished ivories allowing a much
more complete picture of the production of this category of objects. Many
collaborating institutions have also agreed to new digital photography,
made to standards set by the Project. Where no alternative was feasible,
the Project has shared the cost of new photography. Museums, recognising
the value of the site, have begun to undertake the production of fresh
catalogues of their ivories: the Courtauld Gallery (John Lowden), 2013,
and the Victoria & Albert Museum (2 vols., Paul Williamson, Glyn
Davies), forthcoming July 2014, are the first two.
Third, the research has had an unprecedented impact by bringing to light
numerous hitherto unknown or overlooked ivories, some of them of the
Impact 4: Individual scholarly research:
Visitors are encouraged to register as users of the Gothic Ivories
website. Currently there are more than 330 registered users — a
surprisingly large number for such a specialised research field.
We know from web-based data that these users are spread all over the
world. The functionality of the website encourages users to become part of
a Gothic ivories dialogue, be it through the online forum or through their
ability to create and share sets of images.
Impact 5: Art and commerce: the art market, dealers, and collectors
Many Gothic ivories are still in private collections. Exceptionally
important ivories — previously entirely unknown — still come to light on a
regular basis in the sale rooms of London, Paris and New York. The most
important of these private collectors are linked in various ways to the
Gothic Ivories Project as advisors, and especially as financial
supporters. Sotheby's and Christie's too are formal collaborators and have
made their archives accessible to the Project.
Impact 6: Public interest in Gothic ivories
Since the site was launched, the number of users and the extent of their
use have both grown enormously. The most recent month (July 2013) saw
80,977 pages consulted. In addition, the number of users has grown
steadily to an average of 2,300 unique visitors per month. This
demonstrates that the site has already greatly increased the number of
researchers in the field.
Sources to corroborate the impact
The following five names and five websites can corroborate the claims as
to the impact of the project. For the creation of a new international
network, and collaboration with sources in France in particular, see 1-10.
For the use of the site by participating museums, see 1-2, and 4-8. For
the impact on individual scholarly research, see 1-10. For the impact on
collectors, the art market and dealers, see 3. For the impact on the broad
public, see 6-10.
- Keeper of Sculpture, Metalwork, Ceramics and Glass
Victoria & Albert Museum of Art, London
- Curator of Medieval Art and The Cloisters
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
- Private collector/patron of the arts
Ruddock Foundation for the Arts, London
- Conservateur en chef au département des Objets d'art
Musée du Louvre, Paris
Heinrich Heine Universität, Düsseldorf