Ilika plc: Driving Global Innovation in Next Generation Materials
Submitting InstitutionUniversity of Southampton
Unit of AssessmentChemistry
Summary Impact TypeTechnological
Research Subject Area(s)
Chemical Sciences: Macromolecular and Materials Chemistry, Physical Chemistry (incl. Structural), Theoretical and Computational Chemistry
Summary of the impact
The unique application of combinatorial chemistry in materials science at
Southampton has directly underpinned the success of University spin-out,
Ilika Technologies. Since 2008, the breadth of applications of the
research has allowed Ilika:
- to form a partnership, worth around £4m, with Toyota in the
development of battery materials for electric vehicles
- to optimise new phase change memory materials now used by NXP in
embedded memory applications, and
- to create and sell a subsidiary, Altrika Ltd, that has provided
cell-based skin regeneration therapies to 50 severe burn victims.
Between 2008 and 2012, Ilika enjoyed considerable growth, doubling
employment to 35 staff, increasing turnover by approximately 25% annually,
and floating on the AIM with a market capitalisation of £18.7 million.
The use of combinatorial chemistry, i.e. the rapid synthesis of large
numbers (libraries) of related molecules or materials, in industry, has
traditionally been associated with drug discovery and catalysis in
pharmaceutical companies. The recognition that the technique could be
applied to materials science to create new functional solid-state
materials with tuneable properties and applications spanning the
electronics, energy and polymers sectors gave rise to a significant body
of multidisciplinary research at the University of Southampton's School of
Mark Bradley, Professor of Combinatorial Chemistry until 2005, led a
successful bid to the UK Joint Infrastructure Fund (JIF) for funding of £6
million in 2000 to establish a Combinatorial Centre of Excellence at
Southampton. Brian Hayden, Professor of Physical Chemistry, and Dr Samuel
Guerin, then a Postdoctoral Research Fellow until 2005, now Senior
Scientist at Ilika, worked together in the Centre to develop new
combinatorial approaches to solid state materials discovery based on
vacuum-deposited thin films on silicon micro-fabricated structures for
synthesis, characterisation and screening of these materials [3.1,
3.2, 3.3]. Professor Bradley also developed combinatorial synthetic
and screening methodologies for bio-polymer materials.
Projects to prepare and screen supported heterogeneous catalysts and
electrocatalysts were implemented with support from Johnson Matthey, a
world leader in advanced materials technology, General Motors, who were
keen to explore advances in electrocatalysts for use in electric vehicles,
and the EPSRC. Initial work centred on the synthesis and screening of
metal alloys, and doped oxide materials.
This high throughput methodology was then extended to the synthesis of
supported nanoparticles, most significantly allowing the characterisation
of particle size and support effects in electrocatalysis, and
demonstrating close analogies to heterogeneous catalysis. A range of other
functional materials were synthesised and characterised, including
piezoelectric perovskite metal oxides, metal hydrides and chalcogenide
alloys used for phase change memory applications that are destined to
replace flash memory. The high throughput physical vapour deposition (PVD)
methodology was used to directly synthesise mixed metal hydrides, which
are required for a high capacity, energy efficient and safe method of
reversibly storing hydrogen.
The key research outcome was the successful application of
combinatorial, high-throughput discovery tools to a much wider range
of materials, including polymers and solid state materials.
The IP obtained through this large multidisciplinary project led to the
founding of a University spin-out company, Ilika Plc. in 2004 by
Hayden, Bradley and Guerin. The research resulted in several key patents
and papers [3.1, 3.2, 3.3] and, in particular, the workflow for
solid-state materials discovery (Hayden and Guerin) and bio-active polymer
libraries and workflow (Bradley).
With the founding of Ilika, Hayden and Bradley became consultants, and
Hayden was appointed Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) in 2004, a position he
still holds alongside that of Professor of Physical Chemistry at the
University. Guerin was appointed as a Research Scientist at Ilika in 2005,
where he is now Senior Scientist. The areas of high throughput methods and
materials discovery have continued to feature strongly in Professor
Hayden's research in Chemistry at Southampton [3.4, 3.5, 3.6] with
considerable funding from EPSRC and industry for a range of different
projects. Bradley moved to become Professor of High-Throughput Chemical
Biology at the University of Edinburgh in 2005, subsequent to the
formation of Ilika.
References to the research
(the best 3 illustrating the quality of work are starred)
*[3.1] S. Guerin, B. E. Hayden, J. Comb. Chem. 8
(2006) 66-73. "Physical vapor deposition method for the
high-throughput synthesis of solid-state material libraries".
*[3.2] K. Brace, B. E. Hayden, A. E. Russell, J. R. Owen, Adv.
Mater. 18 (2006) 3253-3257. "A parallel optical screen
for the rapid combinatorial electrochromic analysis of electrochemical
*[3.3] S. Guerin, B. E. Hayden and D. C. A. Smith, J. Comb.
Chem. 10 (2008) 37—43. "High-Throughput Synthesis and
Screening of Hydrogen-Storage Alloys".
[3.4] M. S. Beal, B. E. Hayden, T. Le Gall, C. E. Lee, X. Lu, M.
Mirsaneh, C. Mormiche, D. Pasero, D. C. A. Smith, A. Weld, C. Yada, S.
Yokoishi, ACS Comb. Sci. 13 (2011) 375-381. "High
Throughput Methodology for Synthesis, Screening, and Optimization of
Solid State Lithium Ion Electrolytes".
[3.5] M. Mirsaneh, B. E. Hayden, E. Furman, S. Perini, M. T.
Lanagan, I. M. Reaney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 (2012)
082901. "High dielectric tunability in lead niobate pyrochlore films".
[3.6] M. Chang, M. S. Chen, A. David, S. Gandikota, S. Ganguli, B.
E. Hayden, S. Hung, X. Lu, C. Mormiche, A. Noori, D. C. A. Smith, C. J. B.
Vian, J. Appl. Phys. 113 (2013) 034107. "Novel metal
gates for high k applications".
Funding: EPSRC projects (i) GR/M88365/01 (£5.95m) JIF:Combinatorial
Centre of Excellence (July 00-June 04) PI:Bradley; (ii) GR/R50639/01
(£198k) Combinational Screening and Characterisation of Platinum Based
PEM Fuel Cell Catalysts (Feb 02-Feb 05) PI:Hayden; (iii)
EP/C003039/1 (£16k) Electrocatalysis on Supported Metal and Alloy
Particles of Controlled Particle Size (Dec 04-Nov 05), PI:Hayden;
(iv) EP/F015631/1 (£93k) High Throughput Synthesis of PbnNb2O5+n
Pyrochlore-Structured Tunable Thin Films (Feb 08-Jan 09) PI:Hayden.
Patents based on underpinning research prior to Ilika
being founded: S. Guerin and B. E. Hayden, "Vapour deposition Method",
US patent 8163337 (filed UK 2003, granted US 2012); J. R. Owen, P. N.
Bartlett, B. E. Hayden, A. E. Russell and K. M. Brace, "Electrochemical
cell for testing the electrocatalytic behavior of multiple materials",
US patent 8,083,913 (filed UK 2003, Granted US 2011, Europe 2013).
Details of the impact
Research at Southampton that gave rise to a unique high-throughput
solid-state synthesis methodology, has led to the creation of a dynamic
spin-out company, Ilika Technologies plc [5.1]. The company has
accelerated the development of the clean technologies of the future, in
collaboration with leading multinationals, and boosted the global
competitiveness of the UK economy. Based on Southampton's patented
methodology [Section 3], Ilika's work is focused on next-generation
applications for the high-growth industries of clean energy and
electronics, driving forward innovation to reduce reliance on the world's
diminishing supply of hydrocarbon fuels and cutting carbon emissions.
Clean technology: Governments have introduced incentives to
stimulate the development of electric vehicles (EVs), but mass-market
roll-out is being hindered by inadequate battery performance. Ilika's
technology, which allows rapid synthesis and screening of new cell
chemistries, has increased the energy capacity and charge rates of solid
state lithium-ion batteries, a market set to be worth $32 billion a
year by 2018. In a significant collaboration with Toyota, who since 2008
have invested ~£4 million revenue directly into this research [5.1,
5.2], Ilika has also filed 9 patents in the period 2008-13 to
facilitate further advances in EV through the creation of new battery
materials and compositions [5.3]. These are being integrated into
batteries for future generations of Toyota's hybrid vehicles, also
offering very significant safety benefits over liquid electrolyte
batteries. Reducing catalyst materials costs is a key driver in delivering
Toyota's vision for fuel cell hybrid vehicle roll-out. Mr Taniguchi
(Toyota) states, "Ilika's fuel cell catalyst formulation is key to
Toyota's strategy for cost reduction", while according to Mr
Okajima (Project Manager, Toyota's Frontiers & Advanced Engineering
Strategy Department, R&D Management Centre, Japan), "Ilika's
high through-put techniques are essential to overcome some of the
technological barriers we face in the development of leading-edge
technologies" [5.4, 5.5]. Ilika has also made an
impact in other areas of the automotive industry, working with CeramTec to
develop more environmentally-friendly lead-free piezoelectrics in sensors
and actuators used for triggering airbags and in fuel injection systems.
These are now in use in several German automotive vehicle brands [5.4].
The International Energy Agency estimates that by 2020 hydrogen fuel cell
vehicles will be responsible for 10% of the new car market, achieving an 8
million tonne reduction in UK CO2 emissions between 2010-2020.
The prohibitive cost of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells has
hindered the growth of this industry. Ilika has worked with Japanese
chemicals and materials company Asahi Kasei to develop unique palladium
alloy (Pd/Co/W) electrocatalysts [5.1] which are ~70% cheaper than
`standard' platinum catalysts, making the market penetration of fuel cell
vehicles more viable. Ilika has been awarded 3 Carbon Trust Grants to take
this work forward (total: ~£438k), plus £150k equity investment in 2012 [5.1,
The future of hydrogen as an energy source is very dependent on the
ability to store it safely. Current solutions consume large amounts of
energy and raise safety concerns. Ilika worked with Shell to develop a
solid metal hydride [5.1, 5.3, 5.4], which is currently being
scaled-up and commercialised with Sigma Aldrich, a US-based specialist
Digital memory: Phase change memory (PCM) is an emerging
technology expected to replace flash in solid-state memory for computers,
smart phones, etc., due to its higher performance and capacity to
extend battery life. In 2008 Ilika began collaborating with NXP
Semiconductors [5.1, 5.3] to optimise new PCM materials through
its high throughput screening technology. These are now being used by NXP
in embedded memory applications [5.6].
Biomaterials: Research into polymers, carried out by Bradley at
Southampton, with researchers at the Universities of Edinburgh and
Sheffield, produced biomedical applications. This led to the founding of Altrika
Ltd in 2009 [5.7], a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ilika,
marketing cell-based skin regeneration therapies to treat burns and
hard-to-heal wounds. In 2011, its Myskin® and Cryoskin®
products were being sold to seven NHS trusts, leading to accelerated
recovery, reduced scarring, reduced time in hospital and increased quality
of life for ~50 patients with particularly severe burns. In December 2012,
Altrika was sold to Adiposet Ltd. [5.7], providing them with
quality systems and licenses-to-operate from the Human Tissue Authority
and Medicines and Health products Regulatory Agency, for expanding its
cell bio-processing and bio-banking projects. This strategic decision
enabled Ilika to focus on its core cleantech programmes, now 90% of its
Economic Impact: The direct economic impact on the UK economy is
through the formation of a PLC which now employs 35 staff (doubling since
2007), including 25 skilled scientists. Its annual turnover has increased
from £0.97m (2007) to £2.01m (2012), growing ~25% pa since 2008. Ilika,
listed in The Guardian Clean Tech 100, attracts inward investment into the
UK, with 83% of its revenue from international companies. It was floated
on the Alternative Investment Market of the London Stock Exchange in 2010
[5.8] at a market capitalisation of £18.7m and raised ~£5.2m, with
a further £5m in May 2012 [5.1, 5.3, 5.9]. Ilika received the New
Energy Awards University Spin-out of the Year in 2012 [5.10]. Its
business is supported by sales offices in Japan, USA and Germany.
Fostering the Impact: Essential to the realisation of the impact
was the involvement of the University of Southampton's Centre for
Enterprise & Innovation (CEI), which assisted with the protection and
exploitation of the IP. Company incubation was supported via
SETsquared (Southampton, Surrey, Bath, Bristol & Exeter Universities).
Southampton Chemistry fostered Ilika's success by reducing Hayden's
workload to enable him to commit 50% of his time as CSO (2005-present).
According to Graeme Purdy (CEO, Ilika), "Brian's role is extremely
valuable to Ilika, both in a business development capacity and in
providing scientific and technical leadership and credibility with
customers" [5.4]. Ilika occupied research and office space
in Chemistry before relocating to the University of Southampton Science
Park in 2007. Graeme adds, "Southampton Chemistry was critical in
nurturing Ilika's growth through structured access to space and a close
cooperation in the early days of the company". Ilika continues to
hold a facilities agreement with the University, enabling them to access
specialist equipment on a commercial basis.
Strong collaborations between Southampton Chemistry and Ilika have also
continued through industrial CASE studentships, MChem placements, academic
consultancies and joint patents. Southampton Chemistry also trained many
of the scientists employed by Ilika.
Sources to corroborate the impact
[5.1] Ilika plc web-site: www.ilika.com
(includes Company History; Annual Reports; Edison Investment Research
Report; press releases)
[5.2] Press releases — Ilika-company partnerships: Toyota: http://www.ilika.com/Toyota-Motor-Corporation-Japan-Contract-Renewal.aspx;
[5.3] Ilika patent holdings.
[5.4] Corroborating contact, Chief Executive Officer, Ilika plc.
[5.5] Alternative corroborating contact, Chairman, Ilika plc.
[5.6] Carbon Trust press releases: http://www.ilika.com/Ilika-awarded-Carbon-Trust-Research-and-Development-Grant.aspx;
Carbon Trust grant award information: 2007/10: £166,788; 2010/11: £98,281;
2011/12: £173,110. Total: ca. £438k, plus £150k equity investment in 2012.
[5.7] Altrika Ltd web-site: http://www.altrika.com/;
Adiposet Ltd. acquisition of Altrika:
2010 — Altrika Ltd awarded £100k TSB funding, winning the healthcare
category of the competition for Disruptive Solutions, for its development
work on a spray formulation of its Cryoskin® donor skin cell product, http://www.altrika.com/altrika-awarded-100000-funding-by-the-technology-strategy-board.aspx;
2011 — Altrika Ltd leads consortium awarded £452k grant by TSB for further
developing its cell labelling technology, http://www.altrika.com/Altrika%20grant%20award%20and%20new%20JDP.aspx
[5.8] London Stock Exchange announcement:
[5.9] Summary of Ilika's key financial data since 2007;
[5.10] New Energy Award 2012 — press release: