Making a distinctive contribution to the revitalisation of the short story genre
Submitting InstitutionEdge Hill University
Unit of AssessmentEnglish Language and Literature
Summary Impact TypeCultural
Research Subject Area(s)
Language, Communication and Culture: Cultural Studies, Literary Studies
History and Archaeology: Historical Studies
Summary of the impact
This case study is based on critical and creative work on the short story
carried out by Cox which has made a contribution to a nationwide
revival of interest in a genre that has traditionally been overshadowed by
the full-length novel.
The Edge Hill Prize, awarded by the University for a published short
story collection, was established based on this research. The Prize has
made a significant and distinctive contribution to an increased awareness
and appreciation, amongst publishers, writers, readers and critics, of the
specificity of short fiction as a genre in its own right; and hence
increased production, promotion and consumption of the short story
collection, providing opportunities for short story writers in the
creative economy. In addition, Cox has influenced the teaching and
practice of short story writing through a number of key texts that are
The research underpinning this case study brings together the creative
practice and critical work of Cox since 2004 at Edge Hill (Reader
in Creative Writing), where she has been employed continuously since
01/09/2004. Before beginning a full time career in Higher Education, Cox
was already a widely published short story writer and the editor of an
Arts Council funded literary journal, Metropolitan (1993-97). Her
collection, The Real Louise (1), includes stories that have
been shortlisted for awards including the Stand International
Short Story Competition, the V.S. Pritchett Award and the Bridport Prize.
`Making It Happen', (London Magazine 2001) also provided the
focus for a practice-based chapter in her PhD, Time and Subjectivity
in Contemporary Short Fiction (1999). Both the creative and the
critical research have generated these key findings:
- The contemporary short story is a distinctive type of fiction, and not
merely a truncated form of the novel.
- It is especially good at capturing the intensity and immediacy of
memory as it is relived within the present moment.
- Because it is a condensed form the short story allows writers a chance
to innovate and experiment with style.
- This dynamic potential is especially evident when a diversity of
stories are published together in a single author collection.
The Real Louise explores and demonstrates ways in which short
story single author collections can be used to deal with time and memory.
For instance, `November' switches between impressions of a walk through
Sefton Park, Liverpool; newspaper and other factual sources; and images
taken from real events, including a hit-and-run incident. Other stories
(`Twentieth Frame', `Sex Etc.') also experiment with form and style, while
some (`Her Old Self Again', `No Problemo') are more conventional. But all
the stories have been composed as a type of montage, closely interweaving
memories and impressions through the use of vivid imagery.
Insights gained from her own practice have shaped Cox's approach
to contemporary practitioners. In her monograph, Alice Munro (2),
and essays, including her journal article on the British writer Helen
Simpson (3), she has discussed the techniques used by both writers to
suggest the reliving of memory. Cox has been recognized as an
authority on Munro, whose canonical status is now firmly established (for
example, she was invited to speak on BBC Radio's PM programme when
Munro was awarded the Nobel Prize, Oct. 2013). Her contribution to a
recent volume on the postcolonial short story combines a reading of
stories by Alice Munro with an analysis of Dead Girls, a
collection by another Canadian writer, Nancy Lee. Cox shows the
effect of combining stand-alone stories in a collection which is subtly
linked by the figure of a serial killer (4). These explorations of the
short story's generic specificity drive Cox's public advocacy of a
form which has tended to be marginalized by publishers and critics'
appraisals. Her Introduction to the edited volume, Teaching the Short
Story (5), outlines the developments in literary culture that seem
to nurture an expansion in short story publishing in the UK, including the
popularity of the self-contained short story amongst emerging writers on
Creative Writing courses; and the role of the internet both in providing
outlets for digital publication and opportunities for publicity and
networking amongst writers and publishers. Cox is the founding
editor of an international, peer-reviewed journal, Short Fiction in
Theory and Practice; in her editorial for the first issue she
addresses the growing community of short story writers, readers and
References to the research
The research findings and insights underpinning this case study are
1. Book: Cox, A. The Real Louise and Other Stories (West Kirby:
Headland Press, 2009).
2. Book: Cox, A. Alice Munro (Tavistock: Northcote House, Writers
& Their Work series 2004).
3. Journal Article: `Helen Simpson's "Opera"', Journal of the Short
Story in English, 51 (Autumn 2008), pp.137-48.
4. Chapter in Book: Cox, A. `Vancouver Stories: Nancy Lee and Alice
Munro', in The Postcolonial Short Story, ed. P. March-Russell and
M. Awadalla (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2012), pp. 64-78.
5. Chapter in Book: `Introduction', in Teaching the Short Story,
ed. Cox, A. (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), pp.1-12.
Output 1 is a collection of prize winning and shortlisted works
(including the Stand International Short Story competition, the
V.S. Pritchett Award and the Bridport Prize). Output 2 was published in
association with the British Council. Outputs 3-6 are peer reviewed items.
Output 3 was published in the key journal in its field. Outputs 1, 3 and 4
are submitted in REF 2. All outputs available on request.
Details of the impact
The following impacts arose during the period January 2008 to July 2013:
Impact 1: Influencing the teaching and practice of short story writing
The impact of Cox's research in the short story is felt in the
writing and publishing community, both within and beyond academia. The
central theme of Cox's critical and scholarly research on short
fiction is temporality: the modern and contemporary short story genre has
the particular quality of engaging with the passing moment, and
representing identity and experience in relation to the present moment.
Two key texts by Cox, Writing Short Stories (Routledge,
2005) and Teaching the Short Story (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011),
build on the discoveries of this research and help to transmit them
accessibly to lay readers, teachers of writing, and to other professional
writers. The critical emphases of Cox's research therefore inform
the increasing practice of short fiction in the Anglophone world on a
number of levels. Cox's book Writing Short Stories is
particularly well known amongst writers outside as well as inside higher
education. For instance, it is required reading for the University of
Exeter's Continuing Education course, `The Art of the Short Story', and
also features on the BBC's `Get Writing' site (Other Source 1, Section
Five). As one example, an author/ lecturer at another university confirms
recommendation of this work to Creative Writing students (Factual
Statement 2). Paul March-Russell's book, The Short Story: An
Introduction, cites Cox's book Writing Short Stories
as `the best guide to writing short stories, due to its engagement with
both theory and practice' (Other Source 2). Sales figures from Writing
Short Stories indicate considerable international currency and
influence for a book in this context: 6,150 to 30/04/13.
Impact 2: Making a significant and distinctive contribution to the
renewal of interest in, and vitality of, the short story as a genre
In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the short story as a
genre of fiction. This has been marked by increased attention to and
appreciation of the short story amongst literary critics and readers. This
renewal may be attributed to many different factors (including the
emergence of new publication channels and business/ distribution models
enabled by technology), and to the work and influence of many different
people and organisations. Within this context, the work of Cox has
made a significant and distinctive contribution, as set out below.
Drawing on her longstanding interest, creative practice and critical
work, Cox founded the annual Edge Hill Short Story Prize in order
to champion the genre. The Prize, which has been awarded annually since
2008, is sponsored by the University and is open to British and Irish
writers of short story collections first published in English. Entry is
through submission by publishers.
The short story has traditionally been undervalued, sometimes regarded as
inferior creatively to the novel and unattractive commercially. Prizes
play an important role in changing perceptions of the form, garnering
attention and enhancing appreciation of its challenges and possibilities.
They can increase demand from readers and demonstrate to publishers that
short stories, particularly when published as collections, merit
investment and more active promotion. A number of authors, publishers and
editors were interviewed as part of the preparation of this case study.
Each noted the contribution that the Prize has made in helping to raise
the profile of the short story as a genre. One publisher (Factual
Statement 3) noted that "The Prize validates the form/genre and
stimulates discussion and debate within the national press and amongst
the writers themselves." Factual statements 1, 2, 4 and 5 support
The writer A.L. Kennedy set out the distinctive challenges and rewards of
short story writing and reading and the marketing barriers affecting the
genre, as well as the benefits of the Edge Hill Prize in an article for The
Independent, stating "And now, after the terrifying and
counterproductive efforts to "save" the short story, we have the Edge
Hill Prize, an annual award of £5,000 to the author of the year's best
collection of short fiction. No gimmicks, no tricks, just respect for
the form, the authors who are trying to work with it and the readers who
still love it. I'm proud to be one of the judges in this, its inaugural
year". (Other Source 3)
In light of challenges facing the short story genre, the sustained
support for it given by the Prize (awarded every year since 2008) is
valued by authors and publishers, particularly smaller independents who
specialise in (or devote a relatively high proportion of output to) the
short story. As one publisher notes, "To compete with the novel and
other forms of literature, the short story genre more than ever requires
continuity. An annual prize provides that and provides the sense of
validation required". This sustained presence has enabled the Prize
to increase its profile and publishers to incorporate it into promotional
strategies. As one editor (Factual Statement 5) notes, "It takes time
for any award to become established and the Edge Hill Prize is now an
annual staple of the industry". The increased profile of the Prize
and the wider growth in short story publication is reflected in growth in
the volume of entries for the Prize, the range of publishers submitting
entries and the profile of authors entered. There was a total of 21
entries in 2008. While only 10 were submitted in 2009, this increased to
18 in 2010 and 20 in 2011, rising to 31 in 2012 and 38 in 2013. Winners
since 2008 have been Clare Keegan, Chris Beckett, Jeremy Dyson, Graham
Mort, Sarah Hall and Kevin Barry. Mainstream publishers such as Random
House, Bloomsbury, Macmillan and Faber now regularly submit entries.
Cox's contribution to the renewal of interest in and vitality of
the short story genre through the Edge Hill Short Story Prize has been
distinctive in two ways. Firstly, drawing directly on her research
insights into the dynamic potential of the short story form when stories
are published together in a single author collection, the Prize is the
only one for a single author collection. Authors, publishers and editors
interviewed for this case study stated the distinct benefits of a prize
for short story collections rather than individual stories. One (Factual
Statement 5) notes that the Edge Hill Prize is ..."the only short story
prize that focuses on a collection, I believe this possibly validates
the genre more than the other prizes". Secondly, unlike other prizes
for work in the short story genre, the Edge Hill prize is for collections
by new British and Irish authors. This contrasts with and complements the
Frank O'Connor International Short Story Award for short story collections
which is open to all writers (new and established) from across the world.
The focus of the Edge Hill Short Story Prize enables new writers from the
British Isles to gain the attention of readers, publishers and critics.
The publication of the longlist and the shortlist for the Prize, and its
award, each create opportunities for the validation, promotion, and
recognition of new British and Irish talent.
By focusing on short story collections from new British and Irish writers
the Prize has helped to generate benefits for authors and publishers,
Increased profile often has an impact on the sales of shortlisted
books. Sales of short story collections are relatively low but
within this context the Prize has had a noted impact. One independent
publisher (Factual Statement 3) specialising in short stories reported
that being shortlisted always results in a modest rise in sales. Another
independent, focused on short story anthologies by emerging writers,
reported that a winning collection they had entered had, to date,
exceeded sales volume expectations by a factor of eight (4,000 rather
500) and continues to sell strongly, attributing this to the Prize
(Factual Statement 4). An author and editor (Factual Statement 1)
interviewed for this case study reports the positive impact that the
Edge Hill Prize has on the careers of individual British authors.
Publishers are more interested in short story collections: An
independent publisher (Factual Statement 4) comments that "authors
are not afraid to go to major publishers with short stories anymore,
practices and policies have changed". A shortlisted author
(Factual Statement 2) adds that: "In the past, it was kind of a
golden rule that you couldn't go to a publisher with a collection of
short stories, it had to be a novel. This has changed and this change
of perceptions is down to the work of people such as Ailsa".
Recognition through the Prize has a positive impact on the careers
of authors: One shortlisted author (Factual Statement 2) reports
that "the Edge Hill prize, however, focuses on new writers and this
provides a highly significant service for the genre and for those
individuals wishing to get established". An independent publisher
reports the impact that winning the Prize had on the career of one of
his authors, noting "he now has a couple of book deals off the back of
the Prize" and that this can be attributed to his involvement with the
Edge Hill Prize (Factual Statement 4).
Increased profile within the publishing industry and related
creative fields can bring work to the attention of dramatists. For
example, an author shortlisted for the Prize in 2013 confirms that this
put the work in the public eye and contributed to one of the stories in
the collection being dramatized for television (Factual Statement 2).
The prize also promotes the reading of short stories, particularly
through the Readers' Prize, initiated in 2008. For the first two years,
this was judged by reading groups run by the Get Into Reading
project, which works with a range of local groups, including recovering
substance abusers, young homeless men and isolated single parents. In
2010-11, the Readers' Choice was judged by sixth-form students; and in
2012, 2013, by undergraduate students.
Both the prize and the underpinning research increase public awareness of
the specificity of the short story writing, and the interconnections
between reading, writing and publishing. Its role in promoting the careers
of short story authors has been recognized in media coverage (Other Source
4). There were 1007 comments on Louise Doughty's Daily Telegraph
Short Story Club when she mentioned the unique status of the prize as an
award for a whole collection (Other Source 5). Video footage from the 2011
award ceremony shows a range of authors and publishers testifying to the
significance of the prize, with one author making specific connections
with the underpinning research through the journal, Short Fiction in
Theory and Practice (Other Source 6).
Sources to corroborate the impact
1) BBC Get Into Writing
2) Paul March-Russell, The Short Story: An Introduction, p.87
(Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press 2009)
3) "Why the short story is still alive and well" by AL Kennedy,
The Independent, 12 June 2007.
4) Guardian Books Blog 2009 http://www.theguardian.com/books/2009/jul/06/sf-outsider-edge-hill-award
5) Daily Telegraph Short Story Club, April 2012
6) Authors' and publishers' comments from video footage, Edge Hill Prize
Award Ceremony 2011 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SidHoGDfieg&feature=youtu.be.
Factual Statements: issues addressed identified in Section
1) Author and editor (independent); 2) Author; 3) Founder, Publisher
& Editorial Manager, Comma Press; 4) Founder, Elastic Press; 5)
Editor, Gollancz Press.