According to the Home Office's 2009 report on organised crime, Extending
our Reach, A
Comprehensive Approach to tackling Organised Crime, serious
organised crime is perceived as a
local problem by British citizens. Foreign organised crime groups are not
Allum's (Lecturer at Bath since 2002) research on the activities of the
Neapolitan Mafia, the
Camorra, in Naples and across Europe has highlighted the pervasive nature
of this organised
crime group, especially in its relationship with local economies and
political elites. More importantly,
her research has identified that English law enforcement agencies do not
have the tools that are fit
for the purpose of identifying the activities of the various Italian
organised crime groups in the UK.
Allum's research has thus informed policy debate and practice around the
issues relating to Italian
organised crime groups in Italy, in the UK and Europe. It has also
improved the quality of evidence
around Italian organised crime groups to enhance public understanding of
the harm they pose to
societies, the economy (in particular, in relation to money laundering
activities), and the resilience
of local politics in Italy and abroad.
PADS+ casts light on the causal mechanisms for crime, highlighting how
the interaction between people and settings leads to acts of crime. As a
result PADS+ has advanced the scientific basis on which policing and
criminal justice strategy and crime prevention policies can be formulated
in the UK and abroad. Three types of impact are claimed: (1) initiating a
move away from a broad-brush risk factor approach to the explanation and
prevention of crime towards a focus on key causal factors and mechanisms;
(2) being recognized and utilized by policy makers; (3) contributing to
social science education nationally and internationally.
Professor Ian Loader's research on the concept of `penal moderation'
shaped the final report of the
Commission on English Prisons Today and helped to inform the policy
arguments of the UK's
leading penal reform charity — the Howard League for Penal Reform. These
arguments, in turn,
influenced the criminal justice agenda of the Coalition Government.
Loader's research on the
politicization of crime and justice was also influential on the final
report of the Justice Select
Committee of the House of Commons on `Justice Reinvestment' (an initiative
which seeks to
create local financial incentives to invest in community penalties).
Loader's research shaped the
views of the Committee on how to build a political consensus for
alternatives to imprisonment.
Critical public policy debates on the likely effect of reductions in
police staffing levels and on understanding the implications of crime
patterns have been informed by findings from research conducted at the
University of Birmingham by Dr Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay. The novel
research contributed to raising public and practitioner awareness and
understanding of the possible impact of cuts in police staffing, whether
or not "prison works" and in explaining the apparent paradox of a fall in
recorded acquisitive crime during a recession. These findings, which often
challenged political perspectives and conventional wisdom, were initially
publicised by an independent think-tank, Civitas, and followed-up in
national press articles (one of which generated approximately 450 reader
comments) and presentations to stakeholder agencies including central UK
Research undertaken by Armitage and Hirschfield and colleagues from the
Applied Criminology Centre (ACC) has made a significant contribution to
crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Emerging from a
wider programme of study in the field of environmental criminology,
research completed at the University of Huddersfield since 2004 into
`designing out' crime has been incorporated into national and local
planning policy and procedures and has influenced international urban
planning. This research has underpinned the UK Association of Chief Police
Officers' (ACPO) success in extending the designing out crime initiative,
Secured By Design (SBD), to 350,000 homes, and in reducing burglary
rates by more than half in housing designed to this standard.
Research in this Unit at NTU has:
(a) Changed the way victimisation is conceptualised, measured, and
reported within official crime surveys;
(b) Transformed the methodological evaluation of the impact of security
devices upon crime and repeat victimisation through the introduction of
multi-level statistical modelling as opposed to bivariate
cross-tabulations which constituted the state of the art prior to her
Professor Tseloni's research has directly informed the methodological
training of crime survey analysts (including those working on the Home
Office British Crime Survey), and contributed through the dissemination of
Home Office guidelines to the day-to-day crime reduction practices and
responses to crime of police forces in England and Wales.
Since the 1980s, there has been a wave of global activity seeking
improved control of money laundering and confiscation of crime proceeds.
This set of research studies, based around the work of Professor Mike
Levi, constitutes core empirical analysis of the scale of financial
crimes, and what can be properly said about the impacts of social
and formal control measures against them. The studies have informed and
helped to shape the fraud, money laundering and organised crime strategies
of the UK Home Office, UK enforcement agencies, and international bodies
such as the EC Justice and Home Affairs and IMF post-2008.
Of the 200,000 offenders supervised in the community by Probation Area
Trusts (PATs) in England and Wales, around half are reconvicted of another
offence within two years. University of Sheffield research into why people
stop offending (`desistance'), funded by the ESRC and the Leverhulme
Trust, has provided evidence to senior staff in PATs, government
departments, and the National Offender Management Service (NOMS) enabling
the development of initiatives aimed at supporting service users in their
efforts to desist. The research has increased awareness and understanding
on the part of professionals of the factors associated with desistance.
Through the medium of a film about how people desist, the research has
helped both to reinvigorate probation services' professional practice and
to develop training programmes with an emphasis on helping people to stop
offending in place of the hitherto dominant focus on enforcement.
Research on spatial patterns of crime at UCL has influenced police
practice and has informed policy and its implementation in countries
including Australia, Canada, UK, and USA. Our research has challenged
conventional wisdom amongst police and policymakers about spatial patterns
of crime. Working directly with police forces and through our continuing
professional development training, we have spearheaded the use of crime
mapping and forecasting methods in practice. Implementation has led to
documented reductions in crimes such as burglary of between 20-66%.
Research at UCL spread public understanding of mafias around the world,
contributed to the professional preparation and development of law
enforcement officers and investigating magistrates engaged in front-line
work against the mafias, provided historical evidence supporting
magistrates in Reggio Calabria seeking to create a legal precedent for the
successful prosecution of the `ndrangheta under anti-mafia laws. It
contributed to the memorialisation of victims of mafia violence in Sicily,
aided the work of the anti-protection racket organisation Addiopizzo by
influencing its staff and alerting visitors to Sicily to the importance of
critical consumption in order to avoid involuntarily funding the mafia.