University of Bristol research into international, regional and national
mechanisms for preventing
torture is at the root of important changes in the operation and working
practices of the key bodies
involved. The UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture, the domestic
legislation and policies
adopted by national governments and the work of organisations set up by
individual states to
prevent torture have all been deeply and directly affected by Bristol's
insights. The AHRC, which
funded the research from 2006 to 2009, described the impact of the Bristol
project as "dramatic". In
the AHRC's judgment, it not only improved institutional processes but
actually reduced the
probability of torture taking place around the world.
The European Human Rights Advocacy Centre (EHRAC), led by
Leach, has combined research and litigation over ten years, to achieve access to justice for
individuals in the former Soviet Union. It has mentored and trained lawyers and non-governmental
organisations; raised awareness about human rights violations; and improved the functioning of the
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). Impact on public policy is evidenced by: (i) justice for
individuals; (ii) compensation secured through the ECtHR; and (iii) consequential changes in
national law and policy. To date, EHRAC's impact includes 98 ECtHR judgments against Russia,
Georgia and Ukraine, on behalf of 1,100 victims.
1.1 was used in EU negotiations on EU Directives on procedural
rights for suspects and defendants as the `leading study in the field' to
address deficiencies in existing mechanisms;
1.2 informed the training of more than 250 judges, prosecutors and
lawyers from at least 23 EU member states regarding respect for and
implementation of procedural rights;
1.3 provided a template used by NGOs in other regions in their
investigations of procedural rights in practice; these include a
consortium of NGOs in six Latin America countries who are using it in
order to produce positive changes in regulation and practice.
This case study describes the impact of the work conducted by the Centre
for American Legal Studies (CALS) relating to capital punishment and the
death penalty. The impacts which will be identified, explained and
evidenced in this document are as follows:
Non-territorial cultural autonomy (NTCA) is viewed as a means of ensuring
peace between minorities and majorities, and protecting minority rights.
University of Glasgow research into the historical application of NTCA
within Central and Eastern Europe and its potential to provide a
multicultural template for modern politics continues to influence the
debate around cultural autonomy in Europe. The research findings have
influenced the European Centre for Minority Issues in Germany, national
governments, political parties and national minority representatives in
the UK, Romania, Armenia, Hungary, Croatia and Slovenia, the Council of
Europe and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
This case study focuses on the impact on the legal and policy debate at
the domestic and international level of research carried out within the
Centre for Research in Law (CRiL) on the legal protection of fundamental
rights in situations of exception.
In particular, it discusses how the research in question has:
(a) assisted NGOs in shaping their strategies;
(b) informed the debate within international organisations;
(c) contributed to raising public awareness of issues relating to respect
for fundamental rights in the context of counter-terrorism.
By raising awareness of the relevant legal constraints upon States and by
assisting NGOs and international organizations, the research has
contributed to reinforcing the protection of the fundamental rights of
individuals belonging to specific groups and, more broadly, to the
strengthening of the rule of law at both the domestic and international
Professor Hodgson's empirical criminal justice research has resulted in
the creation of new professional standards encouraging proactive defence
lawyering and quality assessment requirements for the legal profession in
England and Wales. A model of more effective defence rights, underpinned
by empirical research in English, Welsh and French criminal justice, has
also influenced recent developments in Scotland and in EU criminal
justice; has been relied upon in extradition proceedings in the UK and
Canada; and, through a study at the Criminal Cases Review Commission
(CCRC), has improved legal representation of those seeking to have their
cases reviewed for appeal, as well as the Commission's ability to work
with defence lawyers.
Comparative legal and penological research conducted by Professor Dirk
van Zyl Smit (DvZS) and
Dr Róisín Mulgrew (RM) has had a significant effect internationally and
nationally in shaping law
and policy relating to the implementation of imprisonment in general, and
on life imprisonment,
sanctions for young offenders and the transfer and treatment of foreign
and international prisoners
in particular. This research has underpinned the creation and development
of penal law and policy
in states (e.g. Bangladesh and Malaysia), international and regional
organisations (e.g, European
Union, Council of Europe, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime), as
well as in the judgments
and policies of international and regional human rights and criminal
courts and tribunals (e.g.
European Court of Human Rights and the International Criminal Court).
Professor Patricia Lundy's research, which began in 2005 and continues today, has:
1) Directly led to the Minister of Justice commissioning HM Inspectorate of Constabulary (HMIC)
to investigate the Police Service of Northern Ireland's Historical Enquiries Team (PSNI/HET).
2) Directly led to the Northern Ireland Policing Board (NIPB) holding the PSNI to account; and a
reassessment of the Board's own procedures.
3) Directly led to the resignation of HET's Director and Deputy Director, suspension of all military
case-reviews, complete overhaul of HET, and policy changes in how PSNI/HET investigates
4) Directly led to Committee of Ministers holding the UK government to account with regards to
fulfilment of its obligations deriving from European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) judgements
and HET Article-2 compliance.
5) Directly led to reopening inquests, legal proceedings and informing stakeholders.
6) Directly created critical public debate about the future of the HET and policy more generally
around addressing the legacy of NI conflict.
This case study focuses on the right to assemble and to protest through
International human rights' law. It has impacted upon judicial rulings of
human rights' compliant approaches to monitoring and policing peaceful
protest. Sustained research with the Organisation for Security and
Co-operation in Europe's Office of Democratic Institutions and Human
Rights (ODIHR) has increased national and international understandings of
and respect for one of the fundamental human freedoms through the
development of the Guidelines on Freedom of Peaceful Assembly (Jarman et
al. 2010). These guidelines are increasingly recognised as international
soft law standards and they have been used by international and national
human rights' organisations throughout eastern Europe and the south
Caucasus including the United Nations. The beneficiaries of this research
impact are governments and NGOs working across eastern Europe, the south
Caucasus and central Asia. They include Amnesty International, Human
Rights' Watch, Helsinki Foundation and the International Foundation for
Human Rights (FIDH).