The impact of the research has been firstly, in informing the creation of
a new kind of domestic violence court and secondly, in alerting domestic
and European policy-makers to the problem of women rough sleepers which
was previously effectively "invisible."
summary of the case study
case study emerged from research conducted by the Central Institute for
the Study of Public Protection and its predecessors (Policy Research
Institute and Regional Research Institute). It informed the development
of specialist domestic violence courts in the UK and brought to the
attention of European and domestic policy-makers the plight of victims
of domestic violence many of whom find themselves compelled to sleep
rough, but do so in ways that result in them remaining invisible to the
Legislation, policy and practice surrounding the criminal justice
response to rape in Scotland have
been profoundly influenced by the work of Professor Michele Burman. Her
informed the Sexual Offences (Procedure and Evidence) (Scotland) Act 2002,
and continues to
influence policy and practice guidance. Her research on rape
attrition/conviction rates informed
changes to investigative/prosecutorial responses. Her work was drawn on in
the Scottish Law
Commission's review of the law of rape and informed the subsequent Sexual
Offences 2009 Act
which introduced radical changes to the definitions of rape and of
consent. Burman's research has
been adopted by Rape Crisis Scotland in national campaigns, and crucially
materials for the judiciary in Scotland and abroad.
National and international policy on domestic violence has been strongly
influenced since 2008 by a series of studies on domestic violence
conducted at the University of Bristol, resulting for example in the
piloting of a national disclosure scheme. The studies have also had a
positive impact on the practical ways in which agencies such as the police
respond to domestic violence as well as influencing the development of a
European Police handbook on domestic violence. The criminal justice
system, practitioners and victims have benefited from the studies'
insights into the `attrition' that can occur between the reporting of an
act of domestic violence to the police and the final outcome in court.
They have also gained from Bristol's work on the profiles of perpetrators
and the behavioural differences between male and female perpetrators.
Impacts of this case study are national, regional and local in government
departments and providers of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) services
and in lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) specialist services. They
include evidencing DVA in same sex relationships as a considerable social
problem; identifying and improving understanding about specific
vulnerabilities, abusive behaviours and help-seeking behaviours; the
development of training across mainstream, DVA and LGBT sectors; the
development of existing risk assessment tools to better reflect the
experiences of victim/survivors in same sex relationships; and in raising
awareness of DVA in same sex relationships in LGBT communities.
Research on combating interpersonal violence carried out by Dr Erica Bowen
(Reader in the
Psychology of Intimate Partner Violence) has resulted in:
Research conducted in the School for Policy Studies at the University of
Bristol from 2006 inspired the Government to commission a series of
carefully targeted awareness campaigns on sexual coercion and violence in
teenage relationships. These campaigns ran between 2010 and 2013 and
reached millions of young people. The research has also underpinned
developments in government policy as well as a range of practical
interventions by agencies in England and Scotland. In addition, the
extensive media coverage of the research has substantially increased
public awareness of teenage partner violence and related issues.
A series of inter-related research projects, conducted over the last
decade by Amanda Robinson, has contributed to significant changes in the
services afforded to victims of domestic and sexual violence. Dr.
Robinson's research has produced identifiable national and international
policy impacts as organizations and governments have used findings from
her work to inform their decision-making about the development,
implementation and funding of services for these victims of crime.
Consequently, service delivery for victims of domestic and sexual violence
is becoming more holistic, efficient, and effective, both in the UK and
Violence against women is a feature of personal and social life across
the globe; ignorance of the
nature and extent of this violence is just as widespread. In the UK alone,
one in four women
experience domestic violence, 60% of which goes unreported; in France,
there were an estimated
84,000 rape victims in 2012, although, similarly, there is much
under-reporting. Despite fears being
focused on attacks by strangers, in 80% of cases, the aggressor is known
to the victim, thereby
raising questions about social and family structures. This study outlines
the impact of the unit's
research in raising public and institutional awareness of the issue,
through two discrete but
complementary initiatives each characterised by a collaborative and
transnational approach. The
impacts were underpinned by research covering respectively the literary
and the socio-political
contexts of gender violence.
Jessica Ringrose's research on young people, social media and sexuality
has helped raise awareness nationally and internationally about the
implications of new media for young people's relationships, self-image and
physical and emotional well-being and safety. Studying digital-age
phenomena such as `sexting' and `slut-shaming', Ringrose has attracted
substantial but overwhelmingly sensitive press coverage and sparked
serious public discussion on difficult issues. She has influenced national
and third sector guidelines on sex and relationship education and on
internet controls and her work has underpinned resources for schools. She
has advised on a series of government reports and inspired a very
influential speech by Diane Abbott MP on the sexualisation of society.
Research conducted by the research group `Gender and Law at Durham'
(GLAD) has had a significant effect on the enactment and reform of the
criminal law relating to the possession of extreme pornography, and on the
activities of NGOs lobbying for change in this area. In particular, the
research has generated the following impacts:
(1) In Scotland, it has shaped the campaigns of NGOs,
recommendations of the Parliamentary Justice Committee, and new
legislation by the Scottish Parliament to criminalise the possession of
pornographic images of rape.
(2) In England, it was used by Rape Crisis (South London) and the
End Violence Against Women Coalition for their campaign to `close the rape
porn "loophole"'. This led to a change in Government policy in England and
Wales, and a public commitment by the Prime Minister to amend existing
English legislation criminalising the possession of extreme pornography to
include rape pornography.