The Government of India has put forward a National Water Framework Act
arising from part of the work of the national Planning Commission.
Philippe Cullet's research on water law and governance has directly
impacted upon the nature of India's planned legislation on the issue,
facilitated by his chairmanship of a group within India's Planning
Commission. This is of great significance in a country where 12% of the
1.2 billion-population lacks access to improved drinking water and where
there are major concerns around sustainability of supply.
New characterisation tools for natural organic matter (NOM) in drinking
water are now used as standard practice within water companies such as
Severn Trent Water, United Utilities and Yorkshire Water. The tools inform
decisions, and help develop strategic plans on catchment management,
source selection, treatment optimisation, and disinfection practice. Water
companies experienced difficulties in treating high levels of NOM.
Cranfield created a novel characterisation toolkit to measure NOM for its
electrical charge and hydrophobicity. Also, new techniques for measuring
aggregate properties and emerging disinfection by-products have provided a
comprehensive analysis. Two novel treatment technologies are currently
marketed. These technologies have raised international interest, resulting
in industrial development in Australia.
Diarrhoeal disease is the world's second most common cause of death in
children under five years old, killing 760,000 children each year
according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). Microbial contamination
of drinking water is one of the most important causes. In England and
Wales acute diarrhoeal disease is estimated to cost the country £1.5
billion annually. UEA epidemiologists have shown the important role of
water supply systems in spreading diarrhoeal disease in developed and
developing countries; led WHO research projects on small scale drinking
water systems; and influenced WHO policy on small scale drinking water
systems in developed and developing countries. Methodological research on
epidemiological methods for monitoring and regulating bathing water
quality has led to changes in WHO guidance on bathing water quality
standards and influenced US Environmental Protection Agency criteria.
Hunter's participation in international expert panels facilitated the
impact of this research on policy.
The impact of research by the University of Southampton into global
access to safe drinking water
has: (i) provided important evidence for new policy initiatives by the
World Health Organisation and
UNICEF to promote home water treatment to reduce the 1.9 million deaths
each year due to water-
related infections, and (ii) stimulated debate among a range of
stakeholders, including the media,
advocacy groups and UN bodies, by challenging the accuracy of the
assertion by the UN Secretary
General that the UN Millennium Development Goal for safe water access has
The virtual water concept is used to identify and quantify water use
which is hidden, or embedded within the production and supply of food and
other commodities. Its primary application has been to demonstrate that
the majority of water consumed globally is used within the production and
trade of food. Introduced and developed by Allan, virtual water research
has transformed public and private sector water policy and its metrics in
the UK and internationally. Instantiated through conceptual work published
in 1993 and 1994 and developed through empirical studies thereafter,
virtual water was widely adopted by 2000. The idea is now accepted as an
essential element in the framing of policy on water security and its
economic systems. Virtual water has been increasingly deployed by advisers
to governments, corporations and NGOs, below we provide evidence from the
U.S. State department, Coca Cola, WWF and the World Economic Forum, this
is by no means a complete list. In 2011 the UK House of Lords and UK
government's official response urged the EU Commission to incorporate
virtual water in EU Policy. In recognition of the global conceptual impact
of virtual water, Tony Allan was awarded the Stockholm Water Prize, 2008.
In 2013, in recognition of impact made in preceding years through his
virtual water concept and research Allan was also awarded the Foundation
Prince Albert II de Monaco Water Award and the International
Environmentalist Award of the Florence-based Fondazione Parchi Monumentali
Bardini e Peyron.
Limitations in public access to water environments for recreation are a
longstanding source of stakeholder conflict in which previous policy
initiatives have been ineffective. Our research has demonstrated how
recreational access to inland waters can be increased through stakeholder
capacity building and partnership working. In England and Wales the
research led to changes in policy decisions for access to water, revised
planning policy guidance, improved recreational access, the creation of
102 new jobs, and the modification of management practices by private and
public bodies. In Europe the research has shaped new approaches for the
management of small waterways in 11 countries.
This case study focuses on the Israeli-Palestinian water conflict within
the context of the Oslo peace process. It documents four areas of impact,
the underpinning research and associated engagement and dissemination
activity having: (1) [text removed for publication] (2) significantly
enhanced public and policy understanding of, and debate on, the
Israeli-Palestinian water conflict, within Israel, the Palestinian
territories and internationally; (3) [text removed for publication] and
(4) contributed to the emergence of influential critiques of international
policy on water `cooperation'.
The Lake Naivasha region is a globally-important wildlife sanctuary,
international tourism destination and the world's centre for cut flower
export. Professor David Harper has led sustained ecological research over
a number of years, and this has led to significant impact in terms of
helping to resolve massive ecological degradation at Kenya's Lake
Naivasha. The research has inspired the creation of a Lake management
agency through involvement of HRH Prince of Wales — `Imarisha' — and which
incorporated Leicester's recommendations into its Sustainable Development
Action Plan (2012-17), in turn underpinning increasing sales of Fair Trade
products and ensuring the sustainability of Naivasha's ecosystem services
for future generations.
This case study explores the impact of a University of Cambridge
theoretically-informed programme on how the human body is understood in
different historical settings. The major way the non-academic public
encountered this research was through an exhibition `Assembling Bodies'
at the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, seen
by over 100,000 people. Visitor documentation and external reviews show
that this exhibition successfully provoked its viewers to think in new
ways about human bodies, including their own. It has also inspired new
creative initiatives in art and writing.
This study analysed the shallow well drinking water quality of 17,000
rural Malawians. Water officials were advised interim precautions to take
regarding grossly contaminated wells. Inter alia, the `Water
Resources Investment Strategy', World Bank funded, captured this data to
help develop policy. A new MSc course was established to educate water
officials. Workshops/Fieldtrips integrated this research into the
undergraduate curriculum. An indigenous sustainable natural water
purification system was developed to reduce contaminates at source.
Initial data indicates that water quality can be improved by up to 80%.
This has the potential to improve the water quality for 1.5 million