Research on urban planning has influenced planning decisions and assisted
the Scottish Government and Local Authorities to maximise economic,
physical and social factors in city visioning, planning and design. The
private sector has received advisory and design training in
master-planning though advanced spatial modelling principles and user
engagement techniques; local authority planners have also been trained.
The research has contributed to a paradigm shift in city planning towards
place-making and community design, not just in Scotland but
internationally. This agenda is now established as mainstream in city
planning, and Scotland is regarded as a reference to best practice as
witnessed by the wide adoption of planning documents such as Designing
Places, Designing Streets, and in recent large scale developments such as
Tornagrain (around 4,000 new homes), Knockroon (around 750 new homes) and
Chapelton (around 8,000 new homes), which have used Strathclyde's
Key insights from LSE Cities' interdisciplinary research on the `compact
and well-connected' city have been incorporated by central government in
national planning policy and by the Mayor of London in the London Plan.
This has led to urban land being developed more intensively, ensuring more
sustainable and efficient use of space in English towns and cities.
Research on green city policies has been adopted by the United Nations
Environment Programme (2011) and is determining policy formulation in
Stockholm, Copenhagen and Portland. Urban Age conferences and research
have created an international network of urban policy-makers and scholars,
and LSE Cities staff have had impact on the design of the Olympic Park in
London and development plans for cities outside the UK.
Peter Jones' research developed new principles for urban street planning
and design, which have been incorporated into Department for Transport
(DfT) and Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) national
guidelines. The methodology has been used in the Mayor of London's Roads
Task Force report; Transport for London (TfL) now requires boroughs to use
the classification for all new submissions for funding for street schemes.
It underpins the specification of an £650m PFI highway maintenance
contract with LB Hounslow, and has been used by other UK local
authorities. Internationally, the approach has been applied in Australia
and included in draft regulations for urban planning in Beijing.
Work by Carmona et al has supported the national drive for better design
in the built environment, helping to mainstream ideas about the importance
of urban design and develop tools for design governance. A major strand of
this research has focused on the use and potential of design codes in
England, and has been a major contributor to their widespread adoption. As
a result, by 2012, some 45% of local authorities and 66% of urban design
consultants had used design codes.
ARU is a significant international leader in the definition and practice
of design as research. Buildings and realised urban designs are
the main research outputs. The research is also disseminated with books,
international exhibitions, international journals, television and
newspapers. This research is having verifiable influence on the direction
of architectural practice and education in Asia and Europe. Impact can be
seen in the numbers of visitors such as: 800,000 people to the 2011
Gwangju Biennale ARU Urban Folly; 170,000 people to the 2010 Venice
Biennale; 130,000 people to the 2008 Venice Biennale, and 471,000 page
views to the ARU website between Sep 2008 - Sep. 2013. Florian Beigel was
awarded the Grand Art Prize 2013, of the Academy of the Arts, Berlin, 18
March 2013 for the research works he has carried out with the Architecture
Research Unit over the past three decades.
The case study captures and describes the outputs and impacts arising
from cumulative research on the theme of accessibility in transport and
urban design. Impacts are evidenced both through the research process in
terms of end-user engagement, collaborative research and real world test
bed research (local communities and neighbourhoods); and through
intermediary and professional/ practitioner body validation, policy-making
and take up of research findings and guidance/toolkits arising. Impacts
have also occurred through wider dissemination, follow-up research and
collaboration both nationally and internationally.
Research at Kingston University led by Hilary Dalke has established the
beneficial effects of colour design for application in long-term health
care environments for people with neural disabilities. This work has led
to the development of spatial design principles for improving the
experience of service users, patients and staff.
Through her consultancy work with architectural firms, individual NHS
hospitals, mental health units, independent charities and healthcare
furniture and equipment suppliers such as Hill-Rom, Dalke has influenced
their understanding of the issues involved, leading to improved design in
hospitals, care homes and day centres, with consequent benefits for
patients, staff and visitors in four institutions.
The populations of over 250 European and near Eastern cities are
benefitting from closer integration of health and planning. As a result of
research undertaken at the World Health Organisation Collaborating
Centre for Healthy Urban Environments (WHO CC), built
environment professionals have integrated concerns about public health
into their decision-making and, correspondingly, public health
professionals have engaged with how urban places affect health. Based on a
long-term programme of empirical study, this has happened through our
development, and subsequent operationalisation, of the concept of `Healthy
Urban Planning'. The adoption of our models, assessment tools and
appraisal methods, has fostered a new emphasis on urban development and
planning at neighbourhood level; the implementation of which has resulted
in more active lives, more inclusive communities and environments that
The i~design research programme, which has been running in the University
of Cambridge Department of Engineering (DoEng) since 2000, sought to
understand population diversity in order to better inform design decisions
for mainstream everyday products and services. Impact from this programme,
since 2008, includes: skills embedded in companies through direct training
of over 280 designers and design managers from industry; direct
involvement in the improved design of more than 10 new products and
services that have gone into production; educational resources for
teaching Design and Technology trialled in nine secondary schools; over
800 wearable impairment simulators sold; and extensive web-based guidance,
methods and tools for inclusive design accessed in over 170 countries.
Design thinking has benefited the economic performance of business and
particularly the creative industries, changed awareness of design in
everyday life, and informed public policy. Users and consumers have
benefited from wider understanding of the genesis of products and services
and effects on their quality of life. Design thinking research has been
instrumental in forming a new business sector that provides design
thinking expertise as consultancy. It has changed the processes of
designers and design practices, and fed into UK design education policy.
Design thinking has crossed discipline boundaries; for example framing new
methods and processes in software engineering.