The research on which this case study is based has:
(1) Contributed significantly to raising awareness of child sexual abuse
in sport within the
international community, particularly in relation to the abuse of boys,
and to the development
of a European agenda for the prevention of sexual violence in sport;
(2) Enhanced the ability of the Rugby Football League (RFL) to meet its
national obligations in
relation to safeguarding children and established the first longitudinal
monitors the development of child protection and safeguarding in sport;
(3) Facilitated the RFLs engagement with the international sports and
child welfare community.
Child protection policy and practice has largely ignored young people's
experiences of child sexual exploitation (CSE) and peer-on-peer violence.
Law enforcement and child protection responses are not integrated,
resulting in oversimplified interpretations of young people's victimhood
and criminality. As the only research centre in Europe exclusively
targeting these problems, The International Centre: Researching Child
Sexual Exploitation, Violence and Trafficking has had direct impact
This impact case study is based on a body of research that has enhanced
the assessment and treatment of female sexual offenders internationally.
This clinical impact was underpinned by a series of unique qualitative and
quantitative studies that led to the discovery of female sexual offenders'
offence styles and cognitive characteristics. The work has resulted in the
development of effective clinical practice training and guidelines. It has
been used by professionals to enhance their assessment and treatment of
female sexual offenders whose specific needs had not previously been
Impact: Research defining the victim demographics and mode of
online grooming led to the joint coordination of a G8 meeting and
subsequent Declaration, formation of a Global Alliance and input into
international sentencing procedures.
Significance: As a result of formal policy, legislative changes,
and advice given to people who work with children, more child victims of
online pornography are protected and supported; more perpetrators are
identified, prosecuted and sentenced appropriately.
Beneficiaries: Vulnerable and abused children; governments and
non-governmental organisations; teachers, youth and social workers; the
police and judiciary.
Attribution: Quayle, UoE, led the underpinning research and was
the main co-ordinator for expert content at the G8 and Global Alliance
Reach: Worldwide; 48 countries on five continents have committed
to the goals of the Global Alliance. The work has informed legislative
proposals and sentencing in USA, Japan and Russia. 80 million child
pornography images were identified between 2002 and 2012.
Between 25% and 33% of all perpetrators of sexual abuse in the UK are
children or young people. Policy and practice in relation to this group
has been under-developed. The research detailed in this case study
constitutes a body of work that has identified gaps in service delivery
and has significantly advanced policy, training, treatment services, and
assessment and intervention practices for this group of children and their
families. The research findings have led to a shift across key service
providers, including Barnardo's and NSPCC, away from adult sex offender
approaches towards more child-centred and holistic interventions.
In Autumn 2011, Dr Stephen Bullivant was appointed Director of the
European Society for Catholic Theology's research project into 'the
nature, function and location of theology, with particular attention to
the power of theology to overcome power abuse in Church and Society'
(InSpiRe 2013), and with a special focus on the nature and causes of
clerical sexual abuse.
Given the gravity and urgency of the topic, the project's 'impact aims'
have been to engage two particular non-academic audiences: the Catholic
hierarchy, and those involved in setting church policy regarding
safeguarding and the handling of abuse allegations; and the wider Catholic
public (i.e., the Church as a whole). Its intention is to introduce both
to the wealth of academic research being conducted in this area, and from
which the Church can and must learn.
Although the research project was only recently concluded — and several
of the main outputs have yet to appear — a significant amount of both
kinds of impact has, even at this very early stage, already occurred.
Since the project launch in September 2012, major figures from the world
of Catholic safeguarding, at both national and international levels have
been involved in various ways. Most notably, the Vatican's own chief
prosecutor of abuse allegations has described the project as constituting
'an important moment to move from the hierarchy to the theologians' for
proper reflection 'on this most tragic wound in the Church and in society'
(Vatican Radio 2012a; 2012b; see section 4, below). The project has also
received notable coverage from the international Catholic media.
Responding to the crisis in confidence amongst clinicians involved in
child protection, Cardiff University developed the world's first research
programme to provide the scientific basis for more reliable clinical
assessments of child abuse and neglect. The programme, which involves 21
systematic reviews (updated annually) and related primary studies, has
directly informed five national clinical guidelines, the National Child
Protection training program and the first NICE guidance on child
maltreatment. Through the Core-Info website, the evidence base created by
the Cardiff team is accessed each year by 100,000 users. Key messages from
their research have been published in a series of Core-Info leaflets which
have reached more than 250,000 allied professionals nationally. The
Cardiff research informs standardised national clinical practice, training
and legal decisions, ultimately improving the recognition and protection
of children from abuse or neglect.
The Unit's work has had a direct impact on the child protection system in
England. In 2010, the Secretary of State for Education invited Eileen
Munro to review the child protection system, giving her a wide remit
enabling her to address systemic factors (such as the inspection
framework, statutory guidance and performance management systems) as well
as front line practice. All 15 recommendations of her final 2011 report
[B] have been accepted and are being implemented. Munro's research has had
significant reach: she has given evidence to two state government reviews
of child protection in Australia; and in Queensland a charity is running a
campaign to persuade the state government to learn from her work.
UNICEF estimate that over 3,500 children die annually from abuse and
neglect in economically developed countries, including 100 in the UK of
whom around 4 are from Northern Ireland. Although the number of deaths
appears to be falling in the UK, the rate of decline is slowing. This case
study describes the impact of three related pieces of research undertaken
for the Northern Ireland Executive and the Northern Ireland Commissioner
for Children and Young People. The aim was to identify the things that
policy makers and practitioners could do differently in order to protect
children better, and has led to significant improvements into how reviews
are undertaken, and in the child protection policies and practices in
Northern Ireland. As a result children have been better protected by child
Research providing novel insights into children's perspectives on
families and relationships has had wide impact on policy and practice in
Scotland. Through a partnership with ChildLine Scotland, research
conducted into children's calls has: