Impact on the environment
Impact on practitioners
Loughborough University's (LU) research collaboration with The Hardstaff
Group has resulted in a commercial Oil-Ignition-Gas-Injection system
(OIGI®), which substitutes natural gas for Diesel oil in heavy goods
vehicles. Using optical diagnostics OIGI® was redesigned, increasing
average substitution rates from 45% to 60%. The economic impact for
Hardstaff was a fuel saving of £406k per annum. The research allowed
Hardstaff to create new business with Mercedes-Benz in the UK and Volvo in
Sweden. OIGI® reduces CO2 by up to 15%, harmful nitrogen oxides
and particulate emissions by 30%. The research also demonstrated, for the
first time, dual fuel technology in small, high-speed diesel engines,
paving the way for its application in passenger cars.
University of Huddersfield research into engine technologies has resulted
in a major new partnership with the UK arm of engineering multinational
BorgWarner, leading to the company increasing R&D capabilities in the
UK. This collaboration, funded partly by parent company BorgWarner US and
partly by the government's Regional Growth Fund, involves
multi-million-pound investment, as well as significant job creation and
safeguarding. It was a key factor in the company securing a substantial
contract with Jaguar Land Rover, whose decision was informed by the
University's capacity to help BorgWarner further its R&D activities
and upskill its workforce for the benefit of the UK automotive supply
chain and the local and national economy.
Improved measurement of fuel behaviour in automotive engines has
contributed to the success of
the AJ133 V8 engine, which powers over [text removed for publication]
vehicles sold since 2009.
The research, carried out at the University of Oxford in collaboration
with Jaguar Land Rover
(JLR), developed techniques to improve the understanding of combustion
dynamics in engines and
consequently enabled improvements to fuel consumption, emissions and
engine reliability. Impacts
include contributions to (1) JLR's improved engine design process and (2)
improved fuel efficiency
and thus lower emissions.
This research project, carried out at the University of Derby, was used
to develop an engine performance monitoring system and a data optimisation
method for engine management systems for Land Rover. The project delivered
two pieces of software developed for data modelling and optimisation with
respect to the engine test bed. This has significantly reduced the engine
test time on the test bed by up to 30%, reduced the cost of each engine
test and provided optimum engine operation parameters to the Engine
Control Unit (ECU), which has resulted in lower emissions and improved
fuel economy. The project was started in 2000 and completed in 2008.
However the outcomes of the research and developed software tools are
still used by the Land Rover engine test group.
The University of Manchester and Delphi Diesel Systems jointly developed
a reverse tapered micro-hole drilling technique, which has resulted in
wide commercial applications for the manufacture of fuel injection nozzles
in diesel engines and is used by Volkswagen, Ford and Renault in passenger
cars and trucks. The technique has resulted in 1.5% fuel saving, 35-40%
reduction in particulate matter emission, 20% reduction in NOx emission,
3% reduction in CO2 emission, and allows diesel engines to
satisfy the new EU emission legislation Euro 5 in 2008/2009. Delphi's
diesel engine component business increased by €0.8 billion/year as a
result of the new fuel injection technology.
Cranfield University's research in computational fluid dynamics (CFD),
turbulence models, studies of instabilities and the development of
multi-scale methods has reduced the computational uncertainty in the
modelling and simulation used by the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) to
support the safety and performance of nuclear weapons.
Cranfield's research in compressible turbulent flow for Low Mach numbers
is now employed to increase accuracy in CFD codes employed by the German
Aerospace Agency DLR, Pennsylvania State University, and the French
Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, which use this work to model flows
ranging from turbulent mixing through inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to
Cardiff University's research has provided quantitative characterisation
of transient fuel sprays under engine condition for the first time. This
has enabled integrated design optimisation of Gasoline Direct injection
(GDi) engines, through computer simulation validated by Cardiff's
experimental measurements. The method has been developed and used in
collaboration with Ricardo, a world-leading engine design consultancy, and
has resulted in:
There have been substantial reductions in global CO2
emissions. Prior to 2012, GDi engine production had resulted in over 20M
tonnes CO2 reduction globally, including 10M tonnes across
Europe. A global reduction of 10M tonnes/year is predicted by 2020.
Gasoline engines designed or developed by Ricardo in collaboration with
Cardiff have provided a considerable contribution to this reduction.
Cardiff's measurement techniques provided an essential step in designing
these engines. For example, the PETRONAS engine uses 20% less fuel and
produces 80% less NOx.
Improved Professional Engineering Practice
Cardiff's experimental validation methodology has enabled Ricardo to
design engines through simulation rather than step-wise empirical
development, significantly reducing lead time.
Rail transport is the greenest form of transport in that it produces the
least pollution of the environment. However, the noise from squealing
trains has been a major factor preventing the wider use of rail transport
in populated areas, especially in cities, where trains have to traverse
tight curves in built-up areas. Research carried out at Keele University
on curve squeal gave crucial input to developing an effective control
method (KELTRACK friction modifier, developed by the company LB Foster
Friction Management). This is a device by which a thin film is applied at
the wheel-rail interface, which in turn destroys the generation mechanism
of curve squeal. The KELTRACK friction modifier is now used in transport
systems all over the world, especially in underground systems, such as the
metros of Tokyo, Beijing and Madrid.
Our flow modelling and process optimisation research has improved
significantly the scientific understanding of key industrial coating,
printing and droplet flow systems. We have implemented our research
findings in software tools for staff training and process optimisation
which have enabled: (i) the worldwide coating industry to improve the
productivity and sustainability of their manufacturing processes; (ii)
[text removed for publication]; (iii) a major automotive supply company to
develop an award-winning droplet filtration system for diesel engines.
[text removed for publication].