Research at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) has
developed a successful approach to the rapid scale-up of HIV Testing and
Counselling (HTC) services in high prevalence countries, a vital component
of the global HIV response. The model combines comprehensive quality
assurance with operational research and has led to HTC expansion in
mobile, home and facility-based settings. It has also allowed for
responsiveness to local needs leading to post rape care services linked to
HTC, services for the deaf and HTC for men who have sex with men (MSM) and
other hidden populations in Africa. The global impact of this model is
reflected in WHO policy, Ministry of Health HTC guidelines in numerous
countries in Africa, the on-going work of an indigenous Kenyan NGO and
expansion of HTC through community outreach in the UK.
This project, which commenced in 2000 and continues to this day, has
addressed the settlement of conflicts within states. The project has
yielded important findings in the areas of complex power-sharing, autonomy
and self-governance, political participation mechanisms for non-dominant
groups, peace-making and transitional arrangements in peace agreements.
These findings have flowed into the policies and practices of major
international actors (United Nations, Council of Europe, Organization for
Security and Cooperation in Europe), and have been implemented in a number
of sensitive contexts. The project findings were also applied directly in
a significant number of international negotiations and settlements. This
includes the independence of Kosovo and South Sudan, the peace
negotiations on Darfur, UN planning for the transition in Libya, the
United Nations-led negotiations on a settlement for the conflict in Syria,
and the peace agreement and transitional arrangements addressing the deep
crisis in Yemen.
Communicable diseases are a major health burden in the developing world.
Early detection and
accurate identification of infectious agents is key to their management.
However, the complex
procedures and logistics of current diagnostic tests often make them
unsuitable for use in
developing countries. Two technology platforms have been developed that
have led to a new
generation of simple and inexpensive rapid tests that can be applied in
resource-limited settings. A
spinout company was set up to allow translation of these platforms into
new products. Three tests
(Chlamydia, Hepatitis B and HIV) were launched since 2008, with test kits
patients to receive treatment for infections which would have previously
gone unnoticed and
untreated. The spinout company has raised >$30 million, of which
>$20million is since 2008.
Based on research at UWE into mobile banking regulation, telecoms
companies have been able to contribute to growth in these emerging markets
internationally. The UWE findings have enabled them to understand the
anti-money laundering (AML) and banking regulation implications of their
mobile banking initiatives, giving them confidence and competitive
advantage in negotiations by being fully versed in the local and
international implications associated with mobile money and AML banking
regulation. As a result, the France Telecom Group (FTG) has been able to
successfully launch new subsidiaries in Tunisia, Niger, Armenia and Uganda
which, by bringing mobile money services to new markets, has had a
significant impact on local economies and employment.
Beyani's research on the protection of refugees' human rights
demonstrably underpins his work as a drafter of the Kenyan Constitution,
as a United Nations Special Rapporteur, and as an expert advisor on the
content of international treaties concerning protections to be accorded to
internally displaced persons. The impacts specifically ascribable to his
research relate to:
Working with a farming co-operative in India, this project developed new
software design and deployment methodologies to create a mobile phone
system, Kheti, (Ref 4) for providing on-the-spot, and locally
relevant agricultural advice.
In trials, Kheti handled queries from over 100 different farmers,
helping to avoid critical threats to their crops and livelihoods.
Software companies employed the methodologies: Safal Solutions
applied them to microfinance IT projects in India, generating savings for
over one million people; SAP Research used methods evolving from this
project to create technologies for supply chain management by thousands of
small-scale Cashew and Shea Nut farmers in Ghana, Burkina Faso and
Fieldwork commissioned by Cadbury/Kraft, undertaken at the University of
Manchester (UoM), and
carried out in Ghana, the Dominican Republic and India (2006-11),
considers whether small scale
farmers and workers have the social and economic capacity to sustain and
expand their output of
quality cocoa. The research has been instrumental in shifting the
strategies of Cadbury and other
major chocolate producers towards the sourcing of Fairtrade cocoa.
Specific impacts include: the
launch of the £45m Cadbury Cocoa Partnership (CCP); Cadbury/Kraft
converting its main product
lines to certified Fairtrade; and the launch of the (US$400m) `Cocoa Life'
Mondelēz/Kraft, building on the success of CCP. Spill-over impacts
are also evident: both Nestlé
and Mars have adopted similar partnership strategies, and a subsequent
increase in exposure has
seen Fairtrade chocolate sales rise twelvefold over a four year period.
Research at Oxford funded by the UK Department for International
Development (DFID) showed that countries with highly unequal resource
distribution between culturally defined groups (`horizontal inequality')
are more likely to experience conflict. This key insight contributed to
changes in: DFID strategy towards conflict-affected areas; UNDP policy on
post-conflict reconstruction; the work of the World Bank towards conflict;
and OECD guidance on state-building in fragile states. The research also
made a contribution to national policy discussions in a number of
developing countries, including Nepal, Malaysia and Kenya.